Aythya nyroca   (Guldenstadt,  1770) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: Birds and birding in India.

Size: 38-42 cm.

Voice: Harsh kirr-kere, silent away from breeding grounds.

Habits: A shy and secretive duck, which occurs in pairs or in small groups, feeds mainly by diving at night, hides in reeds on being disturbed. In India, it breeds in Kashmir and Ladakh (around 1500 m) from May to June/July.

Male: Head, neck and breast deep chestnut, nape darker, bill bluish-black, iris white, upper plumage blackish-brown, speculum white, belly with a large white oval patch, under tail-coverts white, legs dark slaty. Female: Duller with brownish iris and less contrasting off-white belly. Male (in eclipse). With brown mantle and dull reddish head, neck and breast. The deep chestnut color, white oval belly-patch, white under tail-coverts and broad white crescent band on flight feathers are diagnostics of both sexes in flight.

Nesting: Season- in kashmir, the only breeding locality within Indian limits, May/June. Nest- a pad of rushes lined with finer grasses and a thick layer of down feathers. Built almongst reeds close to water. Eggs- 6 to 10 pale buff.

Breeding season: It breeds from April or May until late June. Nest- The nest is a low platform of reeds and other vegetation placed on the ground or on an islet or hummock in thick vegetation close to water.

Synonym (s)
Anas nyroca (Guldenstadt, 1770)

Common Name (s)
• Ferruginous Pochard (English)
• Dholi-ankh, Karchiya (Gujarati)
• Kurchiya (Hindi)
• Majitha (Hindi)
• Ferruginous Duck (English)
• White-eyed Pochard (English)
• Tella kanthi chiluva (Telugu)
• Nayansari (Marathi)
• Tammi (Gujrati)
• Kurchiya, Burar mada (Hindi)
Economic Importance and Threats
(The number is declining rapidly due to wetland drainage and hunting all over the world. The species is threatened by the degradation and destruction of well-vegetated shallow pools and other wetland habitats(e.g. changes to the vegetation community, disruption of water regimes, siltation, and increased water turbidity) as a result of excessive drainage and water abstraction, peat extraction, eutrophication (from inadequate sewage treatment and nutrient run-off), oil pollution, dam and barrage construction, the building of infrastructure on flood-plains and river canalisation.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Aquatic vegatation (seeds, plants, algae) and animals (molluscs, larvae, fish).
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened


• Goa, Chapora estuary INDIA (Record: 27/11/1987)
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Farakka Barrage INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ali, S (1977) The book of Indian birds Bombay Natural History Society 175 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Birding in India and South Asia Available at - http://www.birding.in/
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Jha S (2006) Records of some rare birds from Farakka Barrage (West Bengal, India) Indian Birds 2(4) 106pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/Records%20of%20some%20rare%20birds%20from%20Farakka%20Barrage%20(West%20Bengal,%20India).pdf
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2012-08-13

Back to Search