Cygnus columbianus   Ord,  1815 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: Jensen Marcet

Size: 120-140 cm.

Voice: Make deep trumprting sound hoop-hoop.

Habits: In the Indian subcontinent this swan is a rare vagrant, shy and wary, generally found singly mostly spends time swimming, sometimes grazing on land.

Adult: Sexes alike, female slightly smaller. The smallest of the white swans plumage pure white, bill black with a yellow patch on its base, the extent of the yellow patch on its base, the extent of the yellow varies according to individuals, culmen depressed in the middle, legs, toes and webs black.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Tundra Swan (English)
• Bewick's Swan (English)
• Deva hamsa (Gujarati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(he species is threatened by the degradation and loss of wetland habitats due to drainage (e.g. for agriculture), petroleum pollution, peat-extraction, changing wetland management practices (e.g. decreased grazing and mowing in meadows leading to scrub over-growth), the burning and mowing of reeds and eutrophication. The species is threatened by mortality from oil pollution (oil spills) in moulting and pre-migrational staging areas, from collisions with powerlines, and from lead poisoning as a result of lead shot and fishing weight ingestion during migration and on wintering grounds .)
Threats:  Natural threats
(The species is also susceptible to avian influenza, so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the disease.)

Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Chiefly aquatic plants, algae, land plants, grasses.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Gujarat, Rann of Kachchh INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at -
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-08-23

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