Cygnus cygnus   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: Pbase

Size: 105-156 cm.

Voice: Make deep trumpeting sound hoop-hoop.

Habits: Very rare winter straggler in severe winters, generally to NW part of the subcontinent, shy and wary, found singly, spends most of its time in swimming.

Adult: Sexes alike but female slightly smaller, large swan with entirely white plumage, black-tipped bill with yellow base and lores, the yellow extending forward laterally to the nostrils, black legs, toes and webs.

Synonym (s)
Anas cygnus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Name (s)
• Whopper Swan (English)
• Raajhans (Hindi)
• Shirasagar devhans (Gujarati)
• Raajhans (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species is threatened by habitat degradation and loss (such as the reclamation of coastal and inland wetlands) especially in the Asian part of its breeding range. Threats to its habitats include agricultural expansion, wetland drainage for irrigation, overgrazing by livestock (e.g. sheep), vegetation cutting for winter livestock feed, the development of roads , mining (e.g. strip mining of sediment), hydroelectric dam construction, disturbance from tourism and chronic oil pollution from oil exploration, exploitation and transportation. The species may suffer heavy losses from future oil spills, flying accidents (such as collisions with overhead lines or wind turbines), poisoning from lead shot ingestion. The species is also threatened by hunting, nest destruction and by subsistence egg collecting.)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Natural disasters such as droughts or heavy snowstorms and is also susceptible to avian influenza, so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the disease.)

Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Chiefly Vegetarian, comprising aquatic plants, algae, grasses, etc.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Punjab INDIA
• Rajasthan (Lat: 27.03) (Long: 74.21) INDIA
• Kashmir (Lat: 34.30) (Long: 76.81) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at -
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2012-08-23

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