Ciconia episcopus   (Boddaert,  1783) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: Birds and birding in India.

Size: 75-92 cm, Length 86 cm.

Color: Glossy black with a wooly white neck and head. Immature blackish brown above, pale sooty brownish neck and breast, dull white crown and belly. Bare parts: iris dark red; facial skin black; bill black with red tip and culmen; feet and legs blackish red.

Voice: Silent.

Habits: Generally solitary, in pairs or sometimes in small groups, seldom wades in water, roosts on tall trees at night, breeds individually from July to April, builds a solitary nest at the top of a tree.

Adult: Sexes alike, a large black and white stork with conspicuouc white neck, black cap and red legs. Bill black, tinged crimson-red at tip and gape, crown black with green sheen, rest of plumage black, glossed purple or greenish-blue, except lower abdomen, under tail-coverts and tail which are white. Juvenile: Has neck feathers longer and stuffier, glossy black replaced by dark brown.

Nesting: Season- practically all year, varying locally. Nest- a large stick platform with a central depression lined with grass and rubbish, high up in a Silk Cotton (Salmalia) or similar tall tree, usually near water and often also close to a village. Eggs- 3 or 4, white, obtuse ovals.

Synonym (s)
Ardea episcopus (Boddaert, 1783)

Common Name (s)
• White-necked Stork (English)
• Manik-jor (Hindi)
• Laglag (Hindi)
• Woolly-necked stork (English)
• Whitenecked Stork (English)
• Haji laq laq, (Hindi)
• Bagula, Kardok, Kandesur, Kowrow, (Marathi)
• Pandhrya manecha karkocha (Marathi)
• Vannathi naarai (Tamil)
• Karim kokku (Malayalam)
• Kali tul (Gujrati)
• Manik jor (Bengali)
• Dholidok dhonk (Gujrati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Habitat fragmentation destruction and shooting)

Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Fish, reptiles, crabs, molluscs and aquatic insects.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Goa, Arpora INDIA (Record: 17/03/1982)
• Goa, Baga INDIA (Record: 17/03/1982)
• Goa, Divar INDIA
• Goa, Carambolim INDIA
• Goa, Neura wetlands INDIA
• Goa, Shiroda marshes INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi estuary INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahi River estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Pallikaranai Wetlands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ali, S (1977) The book of Indian birds Bombay Natural History Society 175 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Birding in India and South Asia Available at -
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at -
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO
  • Gupta RC, Kaushik TK and Gupta PK (2012) WINTER MIGRATORY WETLAND BIRDS IN HARYANA ARE CONFRONTING ADVERSE CONDITIONS IN RURAL PONDS Resulting in reduction in arrival number: A case study of village Amin in Thanesar block in Kurukshetra district Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 2 (1) 7pp Available at -
  • Pandya PJ and Vachhrajani KD (2010) Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6) 994-1000pp Available at -
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at -
  • Nikhil Raj PP, Ranjini J, Dhanya R, Subramanian J, Azeez PA and Bhupathy S (2010) Consolidated checklist of birds in the Pallikaranai Wetlands, Chennai, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(8) 1114-1118pp Available at -
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at -,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Shanbag A.B, Walia R and Borges S.D (2001) Impact of Konkan railway project on the avifauna of Carambolim lake in Goa Zoos' print journal 16(6) 503-508 Available at -
  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at -
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-08-06

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