Bubulcus ibis   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Ciconiiformes
Family:Ardeidae

Image copyrights: Rajiv Lather

Description
Size: 48-53 cm; Length 50-56 cm.

Color: white in non- and white with buff plumes on crown, back and breast in breeding season. Immature like non-breeding adult. Bare parts: iris yellow, red in breeding birds; lores yellow, purplish pink in breeding birds; bill yellow, orange in breeding birds; feet and legs olive brown, dull orange in breeding birds.

Voice: Generally silent.

Habits: Gregarious when feeding and roosting, invariably accompanying grazing village livestock, feeds on insects disturbed by animals. Breeds almost round the year, through mainly from June to August in N India, breeds in mixed colonies on large trees, oftern away from water.

Adult: Sexes alike, lanky snow-white bird. Non-breeding: Like Little Egret, but always identified by yellow bill contra black. Breeding: Golden-buff plumes on head, neck and back.

Nesting: Season- chiefly June to August in N. India; November to March in the south and in Ceylon, varying according to monsoon conditions. Nest- an untidy twig platform like a crow's. In mixed colonies with cormorants, paddy birds, etc., in large leafy trees, not necessarily near water and often in the midst of a noisy town. Eggs-3 to 5, pale skim-milk blue. Breeding Category- Vagrant.
It feeds on active insects (grasshoppers, crickets, spiders, flies, moths) and frogs.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Cattle Egret (English)
• Surkhia bagla (Hindi)
• Gai-bagla (Hindi)
• Buff-backed heron (English)
• Kalimunti (Malayalam)
• Samti konga (Telugu)
• Unni kokku (Tamil)
• Gochandi khao, Gai bagla (Marathi)
• Dhor baglo/bagalo (Gujrati)
Economic Importance and Threats
(Some ranchers rely on these birds for fly control more than they do pesticides.)
Importance:  Commercial
(The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(In its breeding range the species is threatened by wetland degradation and destruction such as lake drainage for irrigation and hydroelectric power production (Armenia), and in some parts of its range it is susceptible to pesticide poisoning.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Insects
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Goa INDIA (Record: 27/11/1972, 12/12/1972)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 2003, 2008)
• Mangalore, Nethravathi INDIA
• Mangalore, Pavoor INDIA
• Mangalore, Someshwar INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Port INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Navi Mumbai INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Karnataka, Anekere wetland INDIA
• Goa, Carambolim INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Pallikaranai Wetlands INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahi River estuary INDIA
• Southeast Coast, Muthupet Eustary (Lat: 10.31) (Long: 79.53) INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Goa, Taleigao Plateau INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ali, S (1977) The book of Indian birds Bombay Natural History Society 175 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Birding in India and South Asia Available at - http://www.birding.in/
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Ramitha, M and Vijayalaxmi, KK. (2001) A checklist of Birds in and around Mangalore University campus, Karnataka Zoos' Print Journal Department of Studies and Research in Applied Zoology, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Karnataka, India. 16(5) 489-492 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2001/May/489-492.pdf
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
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  • Nagarjuna, A; Kumar,NVN; Kalarani, V and Reddy, DC (2010) Aquatic and avian biodiversity of Pulicat brackish water lake and ecological degradation World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 2 (2) 118-123 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms2%282%2910/8.pdf
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2002) Waders and other wetland birds on Byet Dwarka Island, Gulf of Kutch, western India Wader Study Group Bull. 31-34 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/v099/p00031-p00034.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
  • Pawar PP (2011) Species diversity of birds in mangroves of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, West coast of India Journal of Experimental Sciences 2(10) 73-77 Available at - jexpsciences.com/article/download/11210/5666
  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2011/April/o187026iv111663-1676.pdf
  • Bhat PI, Cristopher SS and Hosetti BB (2009) Avifaunal diversity of Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India Journal of Environmental Biology 30(6) 1059-1062pp Available at - http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/200911_nov09/paper_22.pdf
  • Shanbag A.B, Walia R and Borges S.D (2001) Impact of Konkan railway project on the avifauna of Carambolim lake in Goa Zoos' print journal 16(6) 503-508 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2001/June/503-508.pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Kumar P and Gupta SK (2009) Diversity and Abundance of Wetland Birds around Kurukshetra, India Our Nature 7 212-217 Available at - http://www.mtnforum.org/sites/default/files/pub/6167.pdf
  • Nikhil Raj PP, Ranjini J, Dhanya R, Subramanian J, Azeez PA and Bhupathy S (2010) Consolidated checklist of birds in the Pallikaranai Wetlands, Chennai, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(8) 1114-1118pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/July/o222026vii101114-1118.pdf
  • Pandya PJ and Vachhrajani KD (2010) Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(6) 994-1000pp Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/June/o231626vi10994-1000.pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Deiva Oswin S (1999) Avifaunal diversity of Muthupet mangrove forest Zoo's print journal 14(6) 47-53 Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/1999/June/47-53.pdf
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2007/October/2839-2847.pdf
  • Desai, M and Shanbag, AB (2012) An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(3) 2444–2453 Available at - www.threatenedtaxa.org
  • Gupta RC, Kaushik TK and Gupta PK (2012) WINTER MIGRATORY WETLAND BIRDS IN HARYANA ARE CONFRONTING ADVERSE CONDITIONS IN RURAL PONDS Resulting in reduction in arrival number: A case study of village Amin in Thanesar block in Kurukshetra district Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 2 (1) 7pp Available at - http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2012/Vol%202%20No%201/1-002%20Gupta-Migratory.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-07-11

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