Holothuria (Thymiosycia) arenicola   Semper,  1868 (Sea Cucumber)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Echinodermata
Class: Holothuroidea
Order:Aspidochirotida
Family:Holothuriidae

Description
Size: 30 mm - 200 mm

Color: colour of the body is white; On the dorsal side, three pairs of reddish-brown spots, also scattered are small brown dots which are not conspicuous. In large forms (200 mm in length) there are ten pairs of reddish brown spots. The spots in the middle region are big. In smaller forms (60 mm in length) there are only three pairs of spots.In very small forms (30 mm length) the colour is light brownish-yellow with a few irregular light brown blotches; it depends on the colour of sand or mud in which they live.

Body slender and vermiform. Mouth small and surrounded by tentacles ventrally, tentacles 20; cylindrical. Pedicels small and not conspicuous and arranged in three bands ventrally; mid-ventral band not distinct. In the other two bands there are 3 or 4 pedicels arranged in a row. Anus terminal is surrounded by five groups of four to six short papillae, papillae scattered over the whole body surface. Cuverian organs present.

The calcareous ring consists of ten pieces, of which the radials are distinctly longer than the inter-radials. There is a single large polian vesicle and a single stone canal. The gonads are situated in a single tuft on the left side of the mesentery.The respiratory trees are long and much branched.

Spicules consist of tables, buttons and supporting plates; buttons smooth and regular with six holes with edges regularly indented between each pair of holes; buttons numerous in the body wall; disc of the table with smooth border and quadrate circular outline. A large hole at the center and a small hole at the base of each spire. Peripheral holes vary in number from four to ten. Spire made up of four rods, one cross beam and a crown ending in 1O to 20 teeth; Supporting rods of the pedicels smooth, dilated at the ends and in the middle where three to five perforations are present. In the middle generally there are two or three oval holes.


Synonym (s)
Holothuria arenicola Semper, 1868
Holothuria (Thymiosycia) arenicola Clark and Rowe, 1971
Holothuria brandtii Selenka, 1867
Holothuria humilis Selenka, 1867
Holothuria monsuni Heding, 1939
Sporadipus (Acolpos) maculatus Brandt, 1835

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Sandy
Prey:  Carapid fishes

Biogeography


• Lakshadweep, Amini Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Bay of Bengal INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA
• Red Sea
• Zanzibar TANZANIA
• INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Mukhopadhyay, SK (1991) Echinodermata: Holothurioidea State fauna series 2: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI, Calcutta 399-413 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • James, DB (1995) Taxonomic studies of the species of Holothuria (Linnaeus, 1767) from the seas around India. Part 1 Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society Bombay Natural History Society 92(1) 43-62 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7434/1/449-J._BOMBAY_NAT.HISTORY_SOC_1995.pdf
  • Sastry, DRK (2007) Echinodermata of India : An annotated list Records of Zoological Survey of India Occassional paper No. 271 ZSI, Kolkata 1-387 Available at - http://zsi.gov.in/checklist/Echinodermata_India_Checklist.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-21

Back to Search