Holothuria (Platyperona) difficilis   Semper,  1868 (Sea Cucumber)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Echinodermata
Class: Holothuroidea
Order:Aspidochirotida
Family:Holothuriidae

Description
Size: 15 mm - 180 mm.

Color: Deep brown to almost blackish with dark brown blotches; pedicels yellowish in colour.

Tentacles 18-20 with tentacular collar. Spicules comprise of well developed tables with smooth disc with 6-15 peripheral holes, buttons thin, flat with prominent edge and 3-6 pairs of linear holes of various sizes having an apparent longitudinal ridge in the middle. Papillae scattered on the dorsal side without any arrangement. Pedicels arranged in three bands on the ventral side. The calcareous ring is of the usual type. The radials have a deep notch at the anterior end a slight concavity at the posterior end. Inter-radials rectangular with an anterior knob like projection; polian vesicles two in number and the stone canal is single, left branch of the respiratory tree is much longer than the right; cuvierian tubules thick. The posterior end is tapering. The ventral side is thickly distributed by pedicels.


Synonym (s)
Holothuria difficilis Semper, 1868
Holothuria (Platyperona) difficilis Mukhopadhyay and Samanta, 1983
Actinopyga difficilis Deichmann et al., 1924
Actinopyga parvula Clark, 1920
Microthele difficilis Semper, 1868
Actinopyga bedfordi Deichmann, 1922
Holothuria altimensis Clark, 1921
Holothuria frequentamentis Clark, 1902
Muelleria lubrica Sluiter, 1894
Mulleria lubrica Sluiter, 1894

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Coastal

Biogeography


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island INDIA
• SRI LANKA (Record: 1971)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Mukhopadhyay, SK (1991) Echinodermata: Holothurioidea State fauna series 2: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI, Calcutta 399-413 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumara, PBTP; Cumaranathunga, PRT and Linden, O (2005) Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in southern Sri Lanka: A resource depleted industry SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 24-29 Available at - http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/news/BDM/22/Terney.pdf
  • James, DB (1995) Taxonomic studies of the species of Holothuria (Linnaeus, 1767) from the seas around India. Part 1 Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society Bombay Natural History Society 92(1) 43-62 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7434/1/449-J._BOMBAY_NAT.HISTORY_SOC_1995.pdf
  • Sastry, DRK (2007) Echinodermata of India : An annotated list Records of Zoological Survey of India Occassional paper No. 271 ZSI, Kolkata 1-387 Available at - http://zsi.gov.in/checklist/Echinodermata_India_Checklist.pdf
  • James, DB (1989) Echinoderms of Lakshadweep and their zoogeography Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 97-144 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-25

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