Holothuria (Halodeima) atra   Jaeger,  1833 (Sea Cucumber)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Echinodermata
Class: Holothuroidea
Order:Aspidochirotida
Family:Holothuriidae

Image copyrights: Sumaitt Putchakarn

Description
Size: 90- 500 mm; Disc diameter 0.055 mm

Colour: Black or very dark brown or reddish-brown

Body elongate, sub cylindrical and capable of considerable extension. Posterior end blunt. Mouth in the form of a transverse slit and surrounded by a conspicuous papillose collar. There are 20 tentacles in a double row. Pedicels numerous and crowded on the ventral side. Papillae rather thicker than the pedicels and sparsely arranged. Peristome rather thick, tough and leathery in consistency. Anus terminal.

The calcareous ring is not very large. The radial pieces extend farther forward than inter-radials. Radials square-shaped, the anterior edge of each radial has a rounded incision while each inter-radial piece has an anterior tooth. Posterior margin of the inter-radial arched; four polian vesicles and 18 stone canals; right respiratory tree extends forward to the calcareous ring and is firmly attached to the body wall and the left one, which is shorter, is connected with the extensive rete mirabile of the intestine. Cuvierian tubules absent. Pedicels form a sole ventrally.

The spicules consist of tables and rosettes and spicules characterized by complete absence of buttons. Tables numerous but not crowded. Each table possesses a smaller annular disc and a robust spire composed of four rods and one cross beam. Disc commonly consists of a simple ring with perforation at the base of each rod. Cross beam nearer to the disc than to the crown. Spire surrounded by eight robust horizontal and four equally strong, sharp, large vertical teeth. Central hole of the spire subcircular. Rosettes small. Pedicels have well developed terminal plates. A few bilaterally symmetrical fenestrated plates are present close to the terminal plates of the pedicels. The papillae contain slightly curved smooth or spinose rods, mostly with enlarged fenestrated ends, tables with reduced disc and numerous rosettes.


Synonym (s)
Holothuria atra Jaeger, 1833
Holothuria (Holodeima) atra Mukhopadhyay and Samanta, 1983
Halodeima atra Jaeger, 1933
Holothuria (Microthele) affinis Brandt, 1835
Holothuria amboinensis Semper, 1868
Holothuria radackensis Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821
Holothuria sanguinolenta Saville-Kent, 1893

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Sandy, Coastal

Biogeography


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Devipatnam INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Mukhopadhyay, SK (1991) Echinodermata: Holothurioidea State fauna series 2: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI, Calcutta 399-413 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Putchakarn, S Some coral reef echinoderms from the eastern coasts of Thailand The Swedish Museum of Natural History Available at - http://www.nrm.se/en/menu/researchandcollections/departments/invertebratezoology/research/factsoninvertebrates/galleryofechinodermimages/somecoralreefechinfromthailand.6890_en.html
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Kumara, PBTP; Cumaranathunga, PRT and Linden, O (2005) Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in southern Sri Lanka: A resource depleted industry SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 24-29 Available at - http://www.spc.int/Coastfish/news/BDM/22/Terney.pdf
  • James, DB (1995) Taxonomic studies of the species of Holothuria (Linnaeus, 1767) from the seas around India. Part 1 Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society Bombay Natural History Society 92(1) 43-62 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7434/1/449-J._BOMBAY_NAT.HISTORY_SOC_1995.pdf
  • Sastry, DRK (2007) Echinodermata of India : An annotated list Records of Zoological Survey of India Occassional paper No. 271 ZSI, Kolkata 1-387 Available at - http://zsi.gov.in/checklist/Echinodermata_India_Checklist.pdf
  • James, DB (1989) Echinoderms of Lakshadweep and their zoogeography Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 97-144 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-25

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