Podiceps griseigena   (Boddaert,  1783) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Podicipediformes
Family:Podicipedidae

Image copyrights: pbase

Description
Size: 40-50 cm.

Weight: 800 to 1600g

Color: Adult breeding:- Black crown with short crest, contrasting greyish-white cheeks and reddish foreneck. Non-breeding:- Similar to Great Crested Grebe, but with less defined black crown reaching to eyes, lores black, cheeks pale with dusky wash, neck and flanks dusky with prominent white flash at rear, In flight, white bars on forewings and secondaries. Yellow base of bill and dusky cheeks are prominent.

Habits: Like typical grebes, very similar to Great Crested Grebe.

Sexual Dimorphism:Sexes alike, male larger.

Reproduction: Red-necked grebes breed every year and are seasonally monogamous.

Breeding season: Spans from May to September. Nest building typically occurs in May and most pairs lay their first clutch within the first two weeks. Each clutch usually consists of 4 to 5 eggs, but anywhere from 1 to 9 has been observed. The eggs are usually laid at 1 to 2 day intervals. Eggs are light blue when they are laid, but they often fade to white within one day of being laid. Over time, the wet nest material may stain them to a dark tan color. Hatching occurs 22 to 35 days after the eggs are laid. Both parents participate in incubating the eggs.

During breeding season, red-necked grebes are a very vocal species. The most common call is the drawn out "whinny-braying" call, which is used by the grebes to declare territories and in the mating rituals. During these rituals they also perform a variety of physical displays and “crick crick”, and “teck teck” sounding vocalizations. Red-necked grebes are often silent in the fall and winter, although the generic “crick crick” and “teck teck” sounds are sometimes produced.

Breeding site: The nest is a floating platform of plant matter anchored to submerged or emergent vegetation. The species typically breeds in isolated pairs with more than 50 m between neighbouring nests, although in some cases (e.g. on predator-free islands of floating vegetation attached to emergent vegetation beds) semi-colonial nesting may occur.

Lifespan/Longevity: 5(high) years


Synonym (s)
Podiceps grisegena (Boddaert, 1783)

Common Name (s)
• Red-necked Grebe (English)
• Shiyalu moti dubki (Gujarati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species is threatened by pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other pesticides (e.g. DDT) which cause reduced reproductive success due to egg sterility and eggshell thinning. The species is also threatened by the modification and degradation of lakes and by human disturbance from water-based recreational activities. It may also be threatened by future oil spills at sea during the winter (although during this season the species is widely scattered along coasts, so the effects of oil spills are likely to be small).)
Importance:  Ecosystem balance
(Red-necked grebes compete with other bird species for breeding territory and with fish for food sources. They also provide a food source to their previously mentioned predators. As their primary food source, fish populations are likely kept in check by red-necked grebes.)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Parasites and roundworms can also infect this species. Some breeding pairs may also display aggressive behavior towards the young of other birds, occasionally killing another pair's chicks.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Mainly fish, frogs, tadpoles, aquatic insects, shrimps, etc.
Predator:  American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), common ravens (Corvus corax), gulls, bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), raccoons (Procyon lotor), minks (Neovison and Mustela), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), large fish such as northern pikes (Esox lucius) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • birding.se Available at - http://www.birding.se/
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Myers, P; Espinosa, R; Parr, CS; Jones, T; Hammond, GS and Dewey, TA (2006) Animal diversity web Available at - http://animaldiversity.org.
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • European environmental agency Available at - http://eunis.eea.europa.eu/
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/

Page last updated on:2013-02-07

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