Symplegma viride   Herdman,  1886 (Sea Squirt)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Ascidiacea

Image copyrights: Deep Sea Images

Size: Length varies from 2.5 to 4 mm; width 1.5 to 2 mm.

Color: Pale with either dark, light brown or orange pigmentation around the siphons; pink.

Colonial ascidian, flat and encrusting. Zooids closely touching and pressed against one another and arising from stolons which branch on the substratum. Test is firm and translucent. Mantle is translucent with muscle bands passing irregularly. Tentacles are simple, 21 to 25 in number, half a dozen longer than the rest. Dorsal lamina is a plain membrane. Stomach is with longitudinal folds, and a short blind caecum. A single hermaphrodite polycarp on each side.

Synonym (s)
Diandrocarpa botryllopsis Van Name, 1902
Symplegma elegans Michaelsen, 1934

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Demersal, Open Sea, Coastal


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Harbour INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Harbour, South Break waters INDIA (Record: 06/1995-09/1996)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Harbour, Tidal Basin INDIA (Record: 06/1995-09/1996)
• Maharashtra, Thane-Mumbai Bay (Lat: 18.91) (Long: 72.83) INDIA (Record: 06/2000-09/2001) (Depth: -15 mts)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.91) (Long: 72.83) INDIA (Record: 06/2000-09/2001) (Depth: -8 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Harbour INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Sebastian, VO and Kurian, CV (1981) Indian Ascidians Mohan Primlani, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi 153 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Swami, BS and Chhapgar, BF (2002) Settlement pattern of ascidians in harbour waters of Mumbai, west coast of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR 31(3) 207-212 Available at -
  • Swami, BS and Udhayakumar, M (2010) Seasonal influence on settlement, distribution and diversity of fouling organisms at Mumbai harbour Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India 39(1) 57-67 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Meenakshi, VK; Renganathan, TK; Senthamarai, S and Jeyalakshmi, J (2003) Marine biodiversity - Taxonomy of Indian Ascidians Technical report Available at - Biodiversity Informatics Group, NIO, Goa
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • Deep sea images: Natural history image library Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-02-23

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