Avicennia marina   (Forssk.) Vierh.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Lamiales
Family:Acanthaceae

Image copyrights: Milan Vogrin

Description
Color: Flowers are yellow, in terminal condensed cymes.

Shrubs or small trees, up to 4 m tall. Leaf-blades ovate or lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong or elliptic, usually abruptly acute at the apex, glabrous. Flowers sessile in terminal cymes; calyx deeply lobed; corolla pale yellow, 5-8 mm wide, ovary villous; stigmas 2. Capsules 12-15 mm long, ovoid, apiculate at apex, compressed.

Flowering season: April-June; Fruiting season: June-August

This mangrove species grows in highly saline soils.

This species can be distinguished from other Avicennia species by its elliptic oblong or elliptic ovate leaves and very short beaked, bean-like fruits.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Kalo Bain
• Singala Bani
• Tella Mada
• Alaiyathi
• Kandamaram
• Kandal
• Cheru Uppatti
• Chakkapoo
• Makad
• Gray Mangrove (English)
• White Mangrove (English)
• Venkandan (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Tender leaves used as cattle feed and the bark used as astringent. Stem extract is used as cure for rheumatism, small pox and ulcers. The wood is used for construction of houses and as firewood.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• SRI LANKA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uthas Creek INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vashista estuary INDIA (Record: 02/2009-01/2010)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vainateyam estuary INDIA (Record: 02/2009-01/2010)
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Harbour INDIA
• West Bengal, Medinipur (Lat: 21.5) (Long: 87.08) INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2002)
• West Bengal, Medinipur (Lat: 22.03) (Long: 88.08) INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2002)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, Meghadri Mangroves (Lat: 17.7) (Long: 83.26) INDIA (Record: 04/2006-03/2007)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove (Lat: 11.45) (Long: 79.78) INDIA (Record: 09/2000-08/2001)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove (Lat: 11.43) (Long: 79.8) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.42) (Long: 79.79) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uran Creek (Lat: 20.48) (Long: 77.53) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• INDIA
• Maharashtra, Achra INDIA
• Maharashtra, Vikroli INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Mangrove INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chattram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Ennore Backwaters INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 06/2007)
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 76.6) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 79.88) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.81) (Long: 79.71) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 11.01) (Long: 79.86) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 75.51) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 11.71) (Long: 75.55) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 82.18) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.76) (Long: 82.31) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Gujarat, Purna Estuary (Lat: 20.88) (Long: 72.73) INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Gujarat, Purna Estuary (Lat: 21.01) (Long: 72.91) INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Andhra Pradesh, Nuvvalarevu Mangrove INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Bhavanapadu Mangrove INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangroves (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Goa, Baga Creek INDIA
• Goa, Nerul Creek INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Middle Andaman, Bamboo Tikri INDIA (Record: 09/2004-10/2004)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Andaman, Lakshmipur INDIA (Record: 11/2004-12/2004)
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, West Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, New Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Manauli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Subarnarekha Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, False Point INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA
• Gujarat, Great Rann of Kachchh INDIA

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