Cynometra ramiflora   Linn.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Equisetopsida

Trees. 6-10 m tall, 40-70 cm in diameter. Leaves 2-jugate or 1-jugate, leaflets 2-4.5 cm, variable in shape, usually ovate-oblong or sun-orbicular, oblique at base, emarginate at apex. Flowers 4-6 mm across, purplish, in condensed axillary racemes and on old exfoliate branches. Pods 4­-8 in a raceme, each 1.5-2.5 cm long, obliquely elliptic, wrinkled, 1-seeded; seeds flat, smooth.

Flowers and fruits from September-February, October-March (West Bengal).

The species is distinguished in the field from the flowering racemes arising on old leafless stems and from the curiously wrinkled pods (fruits).

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Shingara (Bengali)
• Shingara (Oriya)
• Wrinkle Mangrove (English)
• Singara
• Singada
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Its wood is used for timber and fuel pur­poses and the seeds are roasted and eaten like ground-nuts.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer


• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, New Wandoor INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at -
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at -
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at -
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Upadhyay, VP; Mishra, PK and Sahu, JR (2008) Distribution of mangrove species within Bhitarkanika national park in Orissa, India Trees for Life Journal Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-27

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