Phoenix paludosa   Roxb.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Arecales
Family:Arecaceae

Description
Gregarious, bushy, soboliferous or dwarf stemless palms, upto 4 m high. Stem base 20-25 cm in diameter, supported by spongy needle-like, perforated breathing roots. Leaves forming a crown, 2-3.5 m long, imparipinnate with many ensiform segments, segments waxy, glabrous, midrib strong, ending into strong sharp spine at apex, few pairs of lower segments modified into sharp spines. Inflorescence a spadix; spadices thickly coriaceous, simple branched, arising in between leaves; spathes 20-30 cm long, brownish, enclosing the flowers. Flowers dioecious, yellowish-white, small, tri-merous; stamens 3 (in male flowers); carpels 3 (in female flowers). Fruits drupaceous, 10-12 mm, oblong or ellipsoid, one seeded, shining black when ripe.

Flowering and fruiting from March to August.

Ripe fruits are not eaten for the blackish pulp is intolerable in taste.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Sea Date Palm (English)
• Hattal (Oriya)
• Hantal (Hindi)
• Hatal (Bengali)
• Hital (Bengali)
• Hetal
• Hental
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Its leaves are extensively used for thatching, mats and wicker work and forms a good resources in cottage industry.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Middle Andaman INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, New Wandoor INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • Balasubramanian, T and Khan, SA (Eds.) (2002) Mangroves of India State-of-the-art report Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Veenakumari, K and Prashanth, M (2009) A note on the entomofauna of mangrove associates in the Andaman Islands (Indian Ocean: India) Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis Ltd 43 807-823 Available at - http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~content=a909513066~fulltext=713240930~frm=content
  • Kathiresan, K and Rajendran, N (2005) Grow mangroves for protecting coral reefs! Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 41-48 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Upadhyay, VP; Mishra, PK and Sahu, JR (2008) Distribution of mangrove species within Bhitarkanika national park in Orissa, India Trees for Life Journal www.TFLJournal.org Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/eprints11/Trees_Life_J_3_5pp.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-27

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