Phalium glaucum   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Order:Littorinimorpha
Family:Cassidae

Image copyrights: Mollusc Net Auctions

Description
Size: 63-120mm, Shell 2½ to 4¾ inches in length.

Color: Dark brown, whitish gray, yellowish to light-oragge, translucent dark-tan. Exterior ash grey; lip and columella orange to yellow, aperture dark brown.

Shell solid, rotund, ash-gray, usually with a malleated surface, with 1 to 3 varices in the spire, and with 3 or 4 strong spines on the base of the outer lip. Nuclear whorls 2½, bulimoid, smooth, translucent dark-tan. A protractively slanting growth line brders it and the spirally beaded post-nuclear whorls. Early post-nuclear whorls rounded and with 7 to 8 spiral grooves and rows of minute beads. The last 2 or 3 whorls become smoothish, except for a prominent row of small, whitish knobs on the upper shoulder and except for weak malleations on the body whorl. Suture finely impressed and bordered below by a weak, whitish gray, spiral swelling. Adults with 0 to 3 former varices showing in the spire. Moderately large, globular shell with a short, pointed spire, up to 12 cm. Outer lip thickened and denticulate with 3-4 sharp spines on outer edge.


Synonym (s)
Cassis glauca Linne, 1758
Cassis glauca Reeve, 1849
Cassis glauca Tryon, 1891
Cassis (Bazoardica) glauca Schepman, 1808
Phalium glaucum Bayer, 1935
Phalium glaucum Crichton, 1941
Phalium glaucum Gravely, 1942
Cassis glauca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Name (s)
• Grey Bonnet (English)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Open Sea, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Sand dollars

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Devipatnam INDIA
• Kerala, Vazhakala (Lat: 10.03) (Long: 76.28) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Dhanushkodi INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi, Sakthikulangara INDIA
• Kerala, Neendakara INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Eddie, H Hardy's internet guide to marine gastropods Available at - http://www.gastropods.com/
  • Pillai, CSG; Appukuttan, KK and Kaladharan, P (1999) Occurrence of submerged Pleistocene stony corals and marine molluscs at Vazhakala near Cochin and their significance on sea level changes Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 28 96-98 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Abbott, RT (1968) The Helmet shells of the world (Cassidae) Indo-Pacific Mollusca The department of Mollusks, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 19th and the Parkway Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 2(9) 15-202 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajagopal, S; Khan, SA; Srinivasan, M and Shanmugam, A (1998) Gastropods of Parangipettai coast Annamalai University 38 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Ramesh, S; Samipillai, SS and Elangomathavan, R (2009) Environmental sciences habitat diversity of hermit crab Clibanarius longitarsus (de haan) in Vellar estuary, south east coast of India Recent Research in Science and Technology 1(4) 161–168 Available at - http://recent-science.com/article/viewFile/1022/763
  • Samuel, VD; Chacko, D and Edward, JKP (2005) Preliminary study on the molluscan diversity of “the lost world’’– Dhanushkodi, east coast of India Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 54-58 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Sundaram, KS; Sarvesan, R; Mohamed, KH and Shanbhogue, SL (1969) Catalogue of molluscs, prawns, stomatopods and marine algae in the reference collections of the central marine fisheries research institute Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 9 1-52 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/570/1/Bulletin_9.pdf
  • Philip, MB and Appukuttan, KK (1995) A checklist of gastropods landed at Sakthikulangara-Neendakara area CMFRI 138 9-10 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-07-19

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