Pholas orientalis   Gmelin,  1791 (Piddock)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order:Myoida
Family:Pholadidae

Image copyrights: Bisyogai shells database

Description
Size: Length 102.3-105.36 mm, maximum shell length 12 cm, commonly to 9 cm; width 29.75-31 mm

Color: Outside of shell dirty white. Interior milky white and porcelaneous.

Shell elongate-ovate in outline, more than 3 times longer than high, rounded at both anterior and posterior ends. Umbonal reflection separated from dorsal margin of shell by a narrow space that is provided with small, transverse calcareous partitions. Anterior and ventral half of valves densely ridged and strongly spinose externally, sharply separated from the remainder part of shell by a radial line joining umbones to the posterior third of ventral margin. Posterior and dorsal half of valves smoothish, densely covered with tiny granulations. Three accessory calcareous plates along dorsal margins of the valves. Anterior plate roughly trigonal and elongated, median plate small and transverse, posterior plate long and narrow. Internal apophysis of the umbonal cavity large and spatulate, depressed medially and recurved along its anterior and posterior margins. Interior of valves with the outer sculpture of riblets and spines showing through anteriorly, smooth and shiny posteriorly.


Synonym (s)
Cyrtopleura costata (non Linnaeus, 1758)
(Misidentification)
Monothyra orientalis (Gmelin, 1791)
(Senior synonym)
Cyrtopleura costata (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Misidentification)
Pholas siamensis Spengler, 1792

Common Name (s)
• Oriental Piddock
• Angel Wings (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Edible)
Cultured:  Yes

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Demersal, Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.65) (Long: 87.63) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Estuary (Lat: 16.63) (Long: 82.3) INDIA
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 15) (Long: 90) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary (Lat: 15.28) (Long: 73.52) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary (Lat: 15.65) (Long: 73.74) INDIA
• West Bengal, Junput INDIA (Record: 08/03/1966)
• West Bengal, Digha INDIA (Record: 19/05/1983)
• West Bengal, Medinipur INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Harbour-Thane creek system INDIA (Record: 1985-1986)
• Gujarat, Jakhau-Babber Creek (Lat: 23.5) (Long: 68.6) INDIA (Record: 1999-2000)
• Gujarat, Sangi-Kharo Creek (Lat: 23.28) (Long: 68.51) INDIA (Record: 1999-2000)
• Palk Bay (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 79.13) INDIA (Record: 04/1994-09/1994)
• West Bengal, Digha Coast INDIA
• INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Subba Rao, NV and Dey, A (2000) Catalogue of marine molluscs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Occasional paper no 187 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 1-323 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Ramakrishna; Sarkar, J and Talukdar, S (2003) Marine invertebrates of Digha coast and some recomendations on their conservation Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 101(3-4) 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Shanmugam, A; Rajagopal, S and Nazeer, RA Common bivalves of Parangipettai coast Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nagabhushanam, AK and Krishnan, S (1993) Observations on the distribution of some of the marine organism inhabiting the inter-tidal zone along the western continental shelf of the Bay of Bengal, with particular reference to the Tamil Nadu coastal strip Records of the Zoological Survey of India 93(3-4) 449-490 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Fernando, AS and Fernando, OJ (2002) A field guide to the common invertebrates of the east coast of India Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology 1-258 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Parulekar, AH; Dhargalkar, VK and Singbal, SYS (1980) Benthic studies in Goa estuaries: Part III- Annual cycle of macrofaunal distribution, production and trophic relations Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 9 189-200 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Rodrigues, NR (2003) Benthic ecology and bioturbation in the coastal waters of Goa, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Subba Rao, NV; Dey, A and Barua, S (1992) Estuarine and marine molluscs Fauna of West Bengal Part 9 (State fauna series 3) ZSI, Calcutta 129-268 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ronquillo, JD and Mckinley, RS (2006) Developmental stages and potential mariculture for coastal rehabilitation of endangered Pacific angelwing clam, Pholas orientalis Aquaculture Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, PAYS-BAS 256 180-191 Available at - http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17825689
  • Laureta, LV (2005) Status and prospects for development UPV Journal of Natural Sciences 10(2) 268-273 Available at - http://72.14.235.132/search?q=cache:g_7YtkZstWwJ:www.upv.edu.ph/ovcre/publications/UPVJNSVol10No2.pdf+Pholas+orientalis&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=32&gl=in
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Poutiers, JM (1998) Bivalves FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Volume 1: Seaweeds, corals, bivalves and gastropods FAO, Rome 1 686 pp Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/w7191e/w7191e00.htm
  • Bisyogai shells database Available at - http://shell.kwansei.ac.jp/~shell/pic_book/index.html
  • Mathew, A and Govindan, K (1995) Macrobenthos in the nearshore coastal system of Bombay Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India (B: Biological Sciences) National Academy of Sciences, India 65 (IV) 411-430 Available at - http://hdl.handle.net/2264/2286
  • Saravanakumar, A; Serebiah, JS; Thivakaran, GA and Rajkumar, M (2007) Benthic macrofaunal assemblage in the arid zone mangroves of Gulf of Kachchh – Gujarat Journal of Ocean University of China Ocean University of China 6(3) 303 -309 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11802-007-0303-3
  • Ramesh, DA; Jeyabaskaran, R and Pandian, ALP (1996) Gastropods and bivalves associated with reef building corals, Palk Bay, southeastern India Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication Phuket marine biology Center 16 257-260 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7666/1/669._Asi.pdf
  • Dey, M and Mitra, A (2005) Molluscan community around Digha coast, West Bengal, India Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 2(1&2) 43-47 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, MV; Pati, SK; D. Swain; and Sharma, RM Marine wood-borers Zoological Survey of India 1-5 Available at - http://zsi.gov.in/checklist/Marine%20Wood%20borers.pdf
  • Jayabal, R and Kalyani, M (1989) Check list of estuarine and marine bivalves of Porto Novo waters Mahasagar NIO, Goa 22(3) 147-150 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-30

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