Gymnocranius griseus   (Temminck & Schlegel,  1843) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: CSIRO

Size: 35-38 cm .

Color: Overall color is silvery, frequently with a diffuse vivid pattern of 5 to 8 narrow dark bars on the side, including one through the eye and across the cheek. Fins are mainly clear to yellowish, sometimes there is diffuse mottling or spotting on dorsal, caudal and anal fins. Often there is a narrow brown bar across the base of the pectoral fins. Some adults possess a few scattered blue spots or scribbling on the snout and cheek.

Eye diameter is relatively large, its diameter about equal to or slightly larger than preorbital and inter orbital width. Relatively ovoid body and pointed caudal lobes are distinct. Height 2-2.3 in young, 2.6-2.8 in length with caudal. In adults 2.4-2.5, 3-3.1 in length with caudal. head 2.8-3, 3.7-3.9 in length with caudal. Eye 2.8-3.2, slightly less than snout in young, 1.2-1.3 in snout in older specimens. Inter orbital space slightly convex anteriorly, more so and even somewhat keeled posteriorly, Where it is also narrow and equal to or somewhat more or less than eye. Mouth somewhat oblique. Lips thick, papillose, as well as chin.

Maxillary reaching to below nostrils. Bands of pointed slender curved teeth anteriorly in both jaws, with an outer row of caninoid teeth, continued laterally as a single row. In the anterior part of the row these teeth are more or less curved, sometimes very strong and real canines, sometimes less slender and more conical. Those in the sides of the jaw conical and stout. Four or five transverse rows of scales on preoperculum. The depth of the posterior and inferior naked preopercular limb about 1.5 in the scaly part. 13-14 scales between occiput and origin of dorsal. Dorsal spines slender, but pungent, the first more than half length of second, which is shorter than third. Third and fourth spines longest, equal to snout and half eye together, or equal to snout in large specimens. Following spines slightly shorter.
Soft dorsal rounded, the median rays longest and longer than longest spines. Anal spines stouter than dorsal ones, the first one more than half length of second, the third longest, longer than eye in small specimens, equal to eye or somewhat shorter in large specimens. Soft anal rounded and less deep than soft dorsal. Pectorals less than half length of snout shorter than head, in young ones almost as long as head. Ventrals, with the first ray produced, as long as pectorals or slightly shorter. Caudal forked, the lobes pointed. Least height of caudal peduncle 1.3-1.4 in its length.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportion.

Synonym (s)
Dentex griseus Schlegel, 1834
Dentex xanthopterus Bleeker, 1845
Dentex lethrinoides Bleeker, 1850
Dentex griseus Bleeker, 1857
Synagris griseus Bleeker, 1872
Gymnocranius griseus Bleeker, 1873
Dentex griseus Steindachner and Doderlein, 1884
Dentex griseus Nystrom, 1887
Dentex griseus Franz, 1910
Gymnocranius griseus Jordan and Thompson, 1912
Gymnocranius lethrinoides M. Weber, 1913
Gymnocranius lethrinoides Fowler and Bean, 1922
Gymnocranius griseus Fowler, 1933
Dentex griseus Temminck & Schlegel, 1843
(Senior synonym)
Gymnocranius grandoculis (non Valenciennes, 1830)
(Misapplied name)
Gymnocranius orbis Fowler, 1938
(Junior synonym)
Lobotes microprion Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Dentex griseus Schlegel, 1842
Gymnocranius griseus Weber and de Beaufort, 1936
Gymnocranius griserus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)

Common Name (s)
• Grey Large Eye Bream (English)
• Naked-heated Large-eyed Bream (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Sometimes caught with handlines and marketed dried or fresh or frozen. )

Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Bottom-living invertebrates and fishes


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Havelock INDIA (Record: 09/10/1991)

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Krishnan, S and Mishra, SS (1992) New records of fishes from Andaman Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman science association, Port Blair 8(1) 82-84 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-01

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