Hyporhamphus limbatus   (Valenciennes,  1847) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Hermosa, Jr., G.V.

Size: 25 cm

Color: Greenish above and silvery below with a brilliant silvery lateral stripe widening posteriorly on the flanks. The flashy tip of the beak is reddish

Body somewhat compressed. Greatly prolonged, beak-like lower jaw, equal to, or longer than head length; upper jaw short, triangular and scaly, its width 0.6-0.8 times in its length. Preorbital distance 1.3-2.1 times in diameter of orbit and 0.75-1.2 times in length of upper jaw. Total number of gill rakers on first gill arch 23-37. Anal fin rays 13-16; caudal fin emarginate, not strongly forked. Dorsal spines (total): 0, Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 16, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 13 - 16. Teeth minute and tricuspid, in many rows in both jaws. Origin of pelvic fin midway between front border of eye and base of caudal fin.

Synonym (s)
Hemiramphus gaimardi (non Valenciennes, 1847)
(Misapplied name)
Hemiramphus gorakhpurensis Srivastava, 1967
(Junior synonym)
Hemiramphus limbatus Valenciennes, 1847
(Senior synonym)
Hemiramphus melanurus (non Valenciennes, 1847)
(Misapplied name)
Hemiramphus tridentifer Cantor, 1849
(Junior synonym)
Hemirhamphus limbatus Valenciennes, 1847
(Senior synonym)
Hemirhamphus sinensis Gunther, 1866
(Junior synonym)
Hyporhamphus sinensis (Gunther, 1866)
(Junior synonym)
Hyporhamphus unifasciatus (non Ranzani, 1842)
(Misapplied name)

Common Name (s)
• Congaturi Halfbeak (English)
• Valenciennes Halfbeak (English)
• Kawaka Bachcha (Hindi)
• Surali Kandai (Kannada)
• Kolaan (Malayalam)
• Sumb (Marathi)
• Toli (Marathi)
• Gongaturi (Oriya)
• Sarbara (Oriya)
• Short Nosed Halfbeak (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh and dried salted.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Feeds mainly on insects


• Persian Gulf
• Gulf of Oman
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Maharashtra, Uran Khadi INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Singh, DF and Yazdani, GM (1993) Ichthyofauna of Konkan region of Maharashtra (India) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no 145 ZSI, Calcutta 46 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ammini, PL; Khambadkar, LL and Augustine, SK (2008) A brief report on the marine fisheries of Puri, Orissa Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series CMFRI 195 6-10 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3454/1/3.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-10-13

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