Galaxea fascicularis   (Linnaeus,  1767) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Oculinidae

Image copyrights: www.reefindia.org

Description
Color: Usually green, red and brown in various mixtures. Polyps are frequently extended during the day, and tentacles often have conspicuous white tips.

Small colonies are cushion-shaped or low domes or irregular. Large colonies are of mixed sizes, commonly up to 6 mm in diameter with numerous septa reaching the corallite centre. The skeleton is very distinctive. Corallites are extremely plocoid, 3-15 mm tall cylinders set into a flat and rather blistery coenosteum. Further enhancing this appearance of tall corallites are the extremely protuberant primary septa, projecting a further 3-5 mm above the corallite wall. Septa usually number over 24 in mature corallites. These are very attractive corals when living, due to the daytime extension of pale yellow, green or blue translucent tentacles. Colonies of this species are commonly less than 40 cm across, forming cushions, or are encrusting to sub-massive. Occasionally, such as in turbid waters, the species can provide over 50% cover over several hundred square metres, and these colonies may develop both foliaceous and sub-ramose parts, with smaller corallites on fast growing extensions. However, on the sub-ramose parts of giant colonies, calices are much smaller and have only 12 septa. Its depth range is 5-20 m deep.


Synonym (s)
Madrepora fascicularis Linnaeus, 1767
Galaxea fascicularis Scheer & Pillai, 1974
Galaxea fascicularis Matthai, 1914
Galaxea hexagonalis (Milne Edwards & Haime)

Common Name (s)
• Octopus Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer

Biogeography


• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Red Sea
• Tamil Nadu, Kariyachalli Island (Lat: 8.95) (Long: 78.23) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA (Record: 1968-1969)
• Tamil Nadu, Manauli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pullivasal Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Pongibalu INDIA
• INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Butler Bay (Lat: 10.67) (Long: 92.58) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Harmindar Bay (Lat: 10.53) (Long: 92.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, New Islet Island INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Edward, JKP; Patterson, J; Venkatesh M; Mathews, G; Chellaram, C and Wilhelmsson D (2004) A field guide to stony corals (Scleractinia) of Tuticorin in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India SDMRI special research publication no. 4 SDMRI, Tuticorin, India 80 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) Stony corals of the seas around India Proceedings of the Symposium on corals and coral reefs Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 191-216 Available at - NIO RC, Kochi
  • Pillai, CSG. (1983) Structure and generic diversity of recent scleractinia of India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 25(1&2) 78-90 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • Wafar, MVM (2003) Checklists of reef fauna Available at - http://www.reefindia.org/
  • Venkataraman, K (2005) Coral reef ecosystem and the diversity of reef building corals in India Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 10-24 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) The distribution of shallow-water stony corals at Minicoy atoll in the Indian ocean with a check-list of species Atoll Research Bulletin CMFRI 141 1-12 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6047/1/1.pdf
  • Stoddart, DR and Pillai, CSG (1972) Raised reefs of Ramanathapuram, south India Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers Blackwell Publishing 56 111-125 Available at - http://www.jstor.org/stable/621544
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) The distribution of corals on a reef at Mandapam (Palk bay), S. India Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 11(1&2) 62-72 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, GC (1991) Distribution of plants and animals on the rocky sea shores of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 7(2) 30-42 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raguraman, R; Sreeraj, CR; Immanuel, T and Raghunathan, C (2010) Intensive study on the Scleractinian coral diversity of Pongibalu, south andaman Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(1) 29-36 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Mondal, T; Raghunathan, C and Ramakrishna (2011) New recruitment of diverse scleractinian corals in little Andaman Islands after Tsunami Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences CSIR 40(5) 653-656 Available at - nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/13076/1/IJMS%2040%285%29%20653-656.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-01-25

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