Lethrinus nebulosus   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Lethrinidae

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Description
Size: 49-87 cm.

Weight: 8,400 gm.

Color: Yellowish or bronze, lighter below. Centers of many scales with a white or light blue spot. Sometimes irregular dark indistinct bars on sides and a square black blotch above pectoral fin bordering below the lateral line. Three blue streaks or series of blue spots radiate forward and ventrally from the eye. The fins are whitish or yellowish; the pelvic dusky, the edge of the dorsal fin is reddish.

It has a moderately elongate and fairly compressed body with a relatively large head and a snout that is almost pointed. Cheek without scales; 5-9 scales in supra temporal patch; inner surface of pectoral fin densely covered with scales; posterior angle of opercular fully scaled. Height 2.5-2.6, 3-3.1 in length with caudal. Head 2.8-3.1, 3.4-3.7 in length with caudal. Eye 3.4-4.1, 1.8-1.9 in snout. Inter orbital space equal to or somewhat more or less than eye, slightly convex in young specimens, more so and more or less keeled in large specimens. Relative length of sides of triangle, formed by middle of pupil, angle of preoperculum and snout (in this sequence) 1:1.4-1.6:1.2-1.3. Mouth very slightly oblique, jaws equal. Corner of mouth below anterior nostril. Canines rather small, slightly curved. Lateral teeth, especially the posterior ones rounded and molar like, often broader than long. Six to six and a half rows of scales between origin of dorsal and lateral line. Dorsal spines slender, heteracanth, the third one longest, somewhat more than post orbital part of head and less than longest soft dorsal rays. Origin of anal separated by 14 scales from lateral line, below last dorsal spine. Second and third anal spines sub equal, about as long as eye and somewhat less than longest soft anal rays. Pectorals long and pointed, almost as long as head, ventrals equal to half eye and snout together. Caudal incised, the lobes more or less pointed. Least height of caudal peduncle 1.5 in its length. Dorsal spines (total): 10-10; dorsal soft rays (total): 9-9; anal spines: 3; anal soft rays: 8.

The reproductive nature of spangled emperors is uncertain, although they also may be protogynous hermaphrodites. In the aquarium, pursuit of a female with a slightly swollen abdomen by a male signifies the start of mating. The male uses its mouth to bump and push the female's abdomen. Then eggs and sperm are released at the water surface.

Age: 27 years

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.


Synonym (s)
Lethrinus choerorynchus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Lethrinus erythrurus (Valenciennes, 1830)
Lethrinus alboguttatus (Valenciennes, 1830)
Lethrinus centurio (Valenciennes, 1830)
Sciaena nebulosa Forsskal, 1775
Lethrinus nebulosus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus opercularis Bleeker, 1850
Pentapaodus nubilis Cantor, 1850
Lethrinus centurio Peters, 1855
Lethrinus nebulosus Gunther, 1859
Lethrinus karwa Day, 1867
Lethrinus nebulosus Klunzinger, 1870
Lethrinus opercularis Bleeker, 1873
Lethrinus nebulosus Kossmann and Rauber, 1876
Lethrinus opercularis Bleeker, 1877
Lethrinus nebulosus Klunzinger, 1884
Lethrinus nebulosus Macleay, 1884
Lethrinus karwa Day, 1889
Lethrinus centurio Sauvage, 1891
Lethrinus nebulosus Pfeffer, 1893
Lethrinus karwa Thurston, 1895
Lethrinus nebulosus Steindachner, 1902
Lethrinus nebulosus Pellegrin, 1907
Lethrinus scoparius Gilchrist and Thompson, 1908
Lethrinus carinatus M. Weber, 1913
Lethrinus centurio Pellegrin, 1914
Lethrinus nebulosus Ogilby, 1916
Lethrinus opercularis McCulloch, 1922
Lethrinus nebulosus Barnard, 1927
Lethrinus opercularis Herre and Montalban, 1927
Lethrinus nebulosus Fowler, 1929
Lethrinus nebulosus Borodin, 1932
Lethrinus nebulosus Fowler, 1933
Lethrinus fraenatus Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus fletus Whitley, 1943
Lethrinus opercularis Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus anatarius Richardson, 1845
Lethrinus aurolineatus Macleay, 1882
Lethrinus cyanoxanthus Richardson, 1843
Lethrinus devisianus Whitley, 1929
Lethrinus esculentus Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus fasciatus Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus frenatus Valenciennes, 1830
(Misspelling)
Lethrinus gothofredi Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus guentheri Bleeker, 1873
Lethrinus karwa Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus korely Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus maculatus Valenciennes, 1830
Lethrinus perselectus Whitley, 1933
Sparus choerorynchus Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Common Name (s)
• Spangled Emperor (English)
• Starry Pigface Bream (English)
• Karwa (Telugu)
• Valamin (Tamil)
• Chemballi (Malayalam)
• Kadu (Malayalam)
• Starry Emperor-bream (English)
• Vilaimeen
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos - Benthic crustaceans, echinoderms, molluscs, Young prawns and Copepods

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• INDIA
• MYANMAR
• Persian Gulf
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Coast INDIA
• Andaman Sea INDIA
• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 33 mts)
• Kerala, Off Kochi INDIA (Record: 03/1954-07/1955)
• Lakshadweep, Amini Island (Lat: 11.08) (Long: 72.75) INDIA (Record: 03/1954)
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore Coast INDIA (Record: 12/2008)
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Silas, EG and Toor, HS. (1961) On some new records of Pigface Breams (Family Lethrinidae : Pisces) from the Andaman sea Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 3(1&2) 208-214 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/908/1/Article_20.pdf
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Page last updated on:2012-01-10

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