Epinephelus fasciatus   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 20-40 cm.

Weight: 2 kg.

Color: Ground color orange/red on head, body and fins; a red band from tip of snout along dorsal part of head through eye to front of dorsal fin; 6 red bands on body; margin of spinous dorsal fin black; upper part of iris black.

Height 2.7-3, 3.3-3.7 in length with caudal. Head 2.3-2.5, 2.9-3 in length with caudal. Eye 4.3-4.6, equal to snout. Interorbital space 1.5-1.9 in eye. Mouth somewhat oblique, maxillary extending to below posterior border of eye or not so far, its width at distal extremity 1.8 in eye. Prae-operculum somewhat produced at angle, its hindborder finely serrated, some large serrae at angle. Opercular spine equidistant, the lower one scarcely farther back than the upper, opercular flap pointed. Gillrakers moderate, 13-16 on lower part of anterior arch, the first 3 or 4 are more or less rudiments. Teeth forming narrow bands, in 2 to 3 rows on the sides of the lower jaw. Dorsal originating above base of pectorals, third or third and fourth spine longest, slightly longer than last dorsal spine and longest soft dorsal rays and 2.8-3 in head. Second anal spine stronger than third, which is equal to it or a little shorter, both spines shorter than longest soft anal rays. Pectorals about equal to postorbital part of head, ventrals three fourths eye-diameter shorter. Caudal subtruncate in young, rounded in adult specimens. Scales of body ciliated, those of head cycloid.

Protogynous, fertilization external, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers. Oviparous.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Perca fasciata Forsskal, 1775
Epinephelus marginalis Bloch, 1793
Holocentrus erythyaeus Bloch, 1801
Holocentrus forskael Lacepede, 1802
Serranus marginalis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus tsirimenara Temminck and Schlegel, 1844
Serranus marginalis Richardson, 1846
Serranus marginalis Bleeker, 1849
Serranus oceanicus Peters, 1855
Serranus marginalis Gunther, 1859
Serranus marginalis Peters, 1865
Serranus marginalis Kner, 1867
Epinephelus retouti Bleeker, 1875
Serranus fasciatus Klunzinger, 1870
Serranus fasciatus Gunther, 1875
Epinephelus fasciatus Bleeker, 1874
Epinephelus tsirimenara Bleeker, 1875
Serranus fasciatus Day, 1888
Serranus marginalis Macleay, 1881
Serranus cruentatus De Vis, 1883
Serranus tsirimenara Steindachner and Doderlein, 1883
Serranus fasciatus Klunzinger, 1884
Serranus erythrurus A. B. Meyer, 1885
Epinephelus fasciatus Boulenger, 1895
Epinephelus fasciatus Waite, 1904
Epinephelus fasciatus Seale, 1906
Epinephelus tsirimenara Jordan and Richardson, 1910
Epinephelus tsirimenara Snyder, 1912
Epinephelus fasciatus M. Weber, 1913
Epinephelus tsirimenara Jordan, 1913
Epinephelus fasciatus Jordan and Starks, 1917
Epinephelus fasciatus Barnard, 1927
Serranus fasciatus Fowler, 1928
Epinephelus fasciatus Weber and de Beaufort, 1931
Serranus fasciatus Day, 1878
Cerna alexandrina (Valenciennes, 1828)
Epinephalus alexandrinus (Valenciennes, 1828)
Epinephalus fasciatus (Forsskal, 1775)
Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes, 1828)
Epinephelus emoryi Schultz, 1953
Epinephelus tsirimenara (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842)
Epinephelus variolosus (Valenciennes, 1828)
Epinephelus zapyrus Seale, 1906
Holocentrus erythraeus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Holocentrus marginatus Lacepede, 1802
Holocentrus oceanicus Lacepede, 1802
Holocentrus rosmarus Lacepede, 1802
Perca maculata Forster, 1844
Plectropoma fasciata (Forsskal, 1775)
Serranus alexandrinus Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus cruentus De Vis, 1884
Serranus fasciatus (Forsskal, 1775)
Serranus geometricus De Vis, 1884
Serranus marginalis (Bloch, 1793)
Serranus oceanicus (Lacepede, 1802)
Serranus subfasciatus De Vis, 1884
Serranus tsirimenara Temminck & Schlegel, 1842
Serranus variolosus Valenciennes, 1828

Common Name (s)
• Blacktip Grouper (English)
• Red banned Grouper (English)
• Ryfana (Mahl)
• Chammam (Malayalam)
• Teda (Marathi)
• Golden Grouper (English)
• Banded Reef Cod (English)
• Vekhi
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish, aquarium. Marketed fresh or frozen.
Reported to cause ciguatera poisoning.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The greatest threat to Epinephelus fasciatus is loss of habitat from episodes of coral reef bleaching in the range of this species that are likely to occur increasingly as sea surface temperature (SST) increases. Other threats include dynamiting of reefs, fishing with poisons and netting on reefs that have resulted in loss of habitat in several countries. Unregulated and increasing fishing also poses a threat.)
Cultured:  Unknown

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Crabs, stomatopods, fishes, shrimps, ophiuroids, octopus and some crustaceans (mainly crabs)
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-11 mts)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R and Nedumaran, T (2009) Ichthyofaunal diversity in great Nicobar biosphere reserve, Bay of Bengal Journal of Threatened Taxa Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society 1(3) 166-169 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/March/o198526iii09166-169.pdf
  • Sluka, RD and Lazarus, S (2010) Grouper (Pisces: Serranidae) relative abundance and diversity on the west coast of India Marine Biodiversity Records Cambridge University Press 3 1-3 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267210000606
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/569/1/Bulletin_8.pdf
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1959) The fishing industry of Minicoy Island with special reference to the tuna fishery Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 6 (1) 30-57 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1866/1/Article_04.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • James, PSBR; Lazarius, S and Arumugam, G (1994) The present status of 'Major Perch' fisheries in India Perch fisheries in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 47 1-9 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8218/1/Bulletin_No_47.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-24

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