Gafrarium pectinatum   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Clam)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Bivalvia

Image copyrights: Sophie Valtat

Size: Maximum shell length 4.8 cm, commonly to 3.5 cm; width11.95 mm; height 9.75 mm

Color: Outer coloration of shell variable, off-white to buff-colored and generally with fawn or brown blotches or spots throughout. Lunule frequently darker towards the umbones. Interior porcelaneous white, often with yellowish hue inside the pallial line, and with purple-brown blotching on lunular margin, posteroventral part of hinge and posterior margin of valves.

Shell thick and solid, with a variable, relatively compressed, elongated shape, elliptical-ovate in outline. Umbones thick, low and rounded, decidedly anterior to midline of valves. Lunule lanceolate, often slightly depressed, set off from valve by an incised peripheral groove, only sculptured with concentric growth marks. Escutcheon a very long and narrow, depressed area along posterodorsal margin of both valves. Outer sculpture rather coarse, with strong, nodulous radial riblets, often dividing in 2 with growth and diverging obliquely towards anterior and posterior parts of valves. Radial ribs of posterior slope strongly diverging and somewhat recurved in dorsal direction, with moderately wide interstices. Anterior limit of posterior slope poorly distinct, marked by a series of radial riblets, often appearing and/or branching at various levels between umbonal region and posteroventral margin. Hinge plate strong, with 3 cardinal teeth at each valve and well-developed anterior lateral teeth, 1 in left valve, and 2 in right valve, separated by a deep socket. Pallial sinus very shallow, reduced to a faint undulation under the posterior adductor scar. Inner ventral margin crenulated.

It is a dioecious species with sex ratio about 1:1. Matures at a shell length 16-20 mm, after one year of life.

Max. age reported: 3 years

Synonym (s)
Circe pectinata (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Senior synonym)
Venus pectinatum Linnaeus, 1758
Gafrarium pectinatum Fischer-Piette, 1976
Gafrarium divaricatum Ray, 1948
Crista pectinata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Venus pectinata Linnaeus, 1758
Gafrarium pectinatum Prashad, 1932
Gafrarium pectinatum Fisher Piette, 1975
Gafrarium pectinatum Fishcer Piette, 1976
Circe pythinoides Tenison-Woods, 1878

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Estuarine, Sandy, Coastal


• West Bengal, North 24 Parganas INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Orissa, Konark INDIA (Record: 19/11/1962)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Kerala, Kannur INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Karnataka, Kumta INDIA
• Anjidiv Island INDIA
• Karnataka, St. Mary Island INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Persian Gulf
• Goa, Candolim beach INDIA (Record: 1984)
• Tamil Nadu, Karangadu Mangroves (Lat: 9.64) (Long: 78.94) INDIA (Record: 02/2010) (Depth: 1-2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Karangadu Mangroves (Lat: 9.64) (Long: 78.96) INDIA (Record: 02/2010) (Depth: 1-2 mts)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Havelock (Lat: 11.97) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Neil Island (Lat: 11.83) (Long: 93.05) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair (Lat: 11.67) (Long: 92.75) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Jolly Buoy Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Red Skin Island (Lat: 11.55) (Long: 92.58) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Camorta INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nancowry Island (Lat: 7.98) (Long: 93.53) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Subba Rao, NV; Dey, A and Barua, S (1992) Estuarine and marine molluscs Fauna of West Bengal Part 9 (State fauna series 3) ZSI, Calcutta 129-268 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • Valtat Available at -
  • Zenetos, A; Gofas, S; Russo, G and Templado, J CIESM Atlas of exotic molluscs in the Mediterranean CIESM Available at -
  • Poutiers, JM (1998) Bivalves FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Volume 1: Seaweeds, corals, bivalves and gastropods FAO, Rome 1 686 pp Available at -
  • Surya Rao, KV and Subba Rao, NV (1991) Mollusca State fauna series 2: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI, Calcutta 273-362 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, NVS; Rao, KVS and Maitra, S (1991) Marine molluscs State fauna series 1: Fauna of Orissa Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta Part 3 1-175 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ingole, B., Sivadas, S., Goltekar, R., Clemente, S., Nanajkar, M., Sawant, R., D’Silva, C., Sarkar, A and Ansari, Z (2006) Ecotoxicological effect of grounded MV River Princess on the intertidal benthic organisms off Goa Environment International Elsevier 32 284 – 291 Available at - Goa, India
  • Venkatesan, V; Kalidas, C; Zacharia, PU and Rajagopal, S (2010) Distribution of molluscan fauna in the Karangad estuarine mangroves, south east coast of India Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society Bioflux 2 (2) 113-119 Available at -
  • Rao, GC (1991) Distribution of plants and animals on the rocky sea shores of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 7(2) 30-42 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Subba Rao, NV and Dey, A (2000) Catalogue of marine molluscs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Occasional paper no 187 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 1-323 Available at - NCL, Pune

Page last updated on:2012-07-30

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