Balistoides viridescens   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Tetraodontiformes
Family:Balistidae

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Description
Max. size: 30 cm

Color: Brownish olive, scales on sides each with a brown spot. A broad dark brown band connecting eyes over interorbital space, continued below eye over gill opening to base of pectoral. Lips and corner of mouth dark brown. Membrane of first dorsal with several brown spots or reticulations. Second dorsal light reddish brown, darker terminally. Anal light reddish brown. Caudal brownish, distal part with brown reticulations. Pectoral pale, slightly brownish at base.

Head 2.7-2.9 in standard length, 3.3-3.5 in total length. Depth of body 1.75-1.90 in standard length, 2.2-2.3 in total length. Eye diameter 4.0-5.8 in head, 2.6-3.8 in snout and 1.3-1.8 in convex interorbital space. A deep groove before the eye. Front of first dorsal spine covered with small tubercles, its length slightly more than 1/2 length of head, second spine slightly more than 1/2 length of first spine and the third spine about 1/3 of second spine. Second dorsal and anal rounded, rather elevated, rays becoming shorter gradually to the last. Pectoral fin much shorter than 1/2 length of head. Ventral spine movable, covered with tubercles and blunt spinules. Caudal fin rounded. Scales large, covered with small tubercles. Five longitudinal rows of short conical spines on posterior part of tail and caudal peduncle.
Number of spines in the first dorsal fin: III; number of spines and rays in the second dorsal fin: ii, 23-24; number of spines and rays in the anal fin: ii, 21-22; number of rays in the pectoral fin: i, 13; number of scale rows along the midside of body from the upper corner of operculum to the midbase of caudal fin in the absence of lateral line: 28-30+7-8; number of horizontal scale rows usually counted from origin of the dorsal fin to the lateral line and from anal origin to the lateral line: 18-19.

Dioecious, external fertilization, guarders, nesters. Distinct pairing.

Largest triggerfish; often hostile towards divers and may attack unprovoked when caring for eggs.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.


Synonym (s)
Balistes brasiliensis Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Balistes nigromarginatus (Tanaka, 1908)
(Junior synonym)
Balistes viridescens Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Pachynathus nigromarginatus Tanaka, 1908
(Junior synonym)
Pseudobalistes viridescens (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Balistes viridescens Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Balistoides viridescens Smith, 1949

Common Name (s)
• Dotty Triggerfish (English)
• Titan Triggerfish (English)
• Rondu (Mahl)
• Palli (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries; marketed fresh, frozen or dried-salted, Ornamental fish
Causes ciguatera poisoning.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Sea urchins, coral, crabs and other crustaceans, mollusks and tube worms

Biogeography


• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• MYANMAR
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Red Sea
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• MALDIVES
• SRI LANKA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA (Record: 05/01/1987-06/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Tinnakara INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2007) Coral reef fish abundance and diversity of seagrass beds in Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin 54 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2003) Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 88-98 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7786/1/678-Mur.pdf
  • Kumaran, M; Murty, VS and Lalmohan, RS (1989) Resources of ornamental fishes Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 46-64 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2004) Community organization of reef fishes in the live coral sub-habitat of Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research 51(1) 87-95 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/150/1/IJF_51_no.1_%2C2004_-_12.pdf
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/3536/1/Special_Publication_No_72.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, S; Ganeshamurthy, R; Balamurugan, J and Kumar, TTA (2011) Reef fishing- An off season amusement at Lakshadweep Fishing chimes 31(1) 128-130 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (2001) Ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep Bulletins of the Geological Survey of India 56 103-111 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8574/1/Murty.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-08-17

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