Anas crecca   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: Animal Pictures Archive.

Size: Length 34-38 cm.

Color: Male pencilled greyish, with chestnut head and a broad metallic green band running backward from eye to nape, bordered above and below by whitish lines. A tricoloured wing speculum- black, green, and buff- particularly conspicuous in flight. Female mottled dark and light brown, with pale underparts and black and green speculum. Above and below vermiculated grey; head chestnut with irridescent green band from lores to nape; breast cream to buff, speckled black; under-tail coverts cream. Eclipse male and female mottled brown with greyish eyeline; Immature resembles female. Bare parts: iris brown; bill grey with flesh colour at base of maxilla; feet and legs slate grey

Voice: Call- a low toned krit uttered by the drake, and a subdued wheezy quack by the duck.

Habits: Perhaps our commonest migratory duck, and an execellent sporting bird, swift on the wing and good for the table. Largely vegetarian in its diet, grubbing for grain and tender shoots of rice and marsh plants in the squelchy mud of inundated paddy fields and grassy tank margins. Also 'up-ends' in shallow water.

Nesting: Season- in the Palaearctic Region (northern Europe to E. Siberia) April to June. Nest- of reeds, rushes, etc. lined with down, on the edge of swamps. Eggs- 7 to 10, cream coloured, with a glossy texture.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Common Teal (English)
• Chhoti murghabi (Hindi)
• Kerra (Hindi)
• Green -winged teal (English)
• Teal (English)
• Eurasian Teal (English)
• Lohiya kerra (Hindi)
• Chowtee (Hindi)
• Patari (Hindi)
• Souchuruka (Hindi)
• Siravi, Kilawai (Tamil)
• Parza (Telugu)
• Yeranda (Malayalam)
• Chakrang (Marathi)
• Nani batak, Murghabi, Nani murghabi, (Gujarati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats
(The species is susceptible to avian botulism and avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Habitat loss and degradation)
Importance:  Commercial
(hunted for sport, hunted commercially and egg collection by locals)

Habitat:  Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Entirely vegetarian
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Satara district INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Karnataka, Anekere wetland INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA (Record: 30/10/1988)
• Goa, Chorao INDIA (Record: 30/10/1988)
• Goa, Chapora estuary INDIA
• Goa, Santa Cruz creek INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Abbaasi, SA (1997) Wetlands of India-Ecology and Threats Discovery Publishing House,New Delhi II 1-182 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ali, S (1977) The book of Indian birds Bombay Natural History Society 175 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Animal Photo Album Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nagarjuna, A; Kumar,NVN; Kalarani, V and Reddy, DC (2010) Aquatic and avian biodiversity of Pulicat brackish water lake and ecological degradation World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 2 (2) 118-123 Available at -
  • Srinivasulu, C (2004) Birds of kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh , India Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1) 3-25 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1968) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 1 1-368pp Available at - NIO
  • Gupta RC, Kaushik TK and Gupta PK (2012) WINTER MIGRATORY WETLAND BIRDS IN HARYANA ARE CONFRONTING ADVERSE CONDITIONS IN RURAL PONDS Resulting in reduction in arrival number: A case study of village Amin in Thanesar block in Kurukshetra district Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 2 (1) 7pp Available at -
  • Deiva Oswin S (1999) Avifaunal diversity of Muthupet mangrove forest Zoo's print journal 14(6) 47-53 Available at -
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at -
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at -
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at -,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Bhat PI, Cristopher SS and Hosetti BB (2009) Avifaunal diversity of Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India Journal of Environmental Biology 30(6) 1059-1062pp Available at -
  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at -
  • Pawar SM, Ganeshwade RM and Sonawane SR (2010) Avian fauna along three water reservoir from Satara district (Maharashtra), India The Bioscan 5(4) 609-612pp Available at -
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-08-27

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