Acropora humilis   (Dana,  1846) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Acroporidae

Image copyrights: Heather Angel

Description
Color: Many colours, but most commonly cream, brown or blue with blue or cream tips.

Finger-like branches arising vertically in clumps or from basal plates, fingers up to 3 cm thick. Each tapers to a large axial corallite 5 mm wide. Radial corallites are about 2 mm diameter, have thick lips especially on the lower side, and immersed radials may commonly lie between the protruding ones. This coral is most abundant in the surf zone near reef crests, where it is thick, solid and stunted. Large colonies may cover over a square metre. Deeper colonies have longer branches reaching 10 cm long, but rarely more.
Colonies are corymbose, digitate. Branches are thick, tapering to a large obvious and dome shaped axial corallite and thick walled radial corallites. Radial corallites are of two sizes, usually in rows. Incipient axial corallite usually occur at the base of main branches. Radial corallites are usually of two sizes.

Hermaphroditic, broadcast spawning.


Synonym (s)
Acropora humilis Scheer & Pillai, 1974
Acropora humilis (Brook, 1952)
Acropora fruticosa Hoffmeister, 1925
Madrepora humilis Dana, 1846
Acropora humilis (Dana) Wells, 1954
Acropora calamaria (Brook)
Acropora erythraea (Klunzinger)
Acropora spectabilis (Brook)

Common Name (s)
• Finger Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Importance:  Commercial
(Aquarium trade)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Predation risk and susceptibility to coral diseases)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Predator:  Acanthaster planci, the crown-of-thorns starfish, Butterflyfishes (Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon trifasciatus)
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Dona INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai, Mulli INDIA (Record: 09/2004-06/2005) (Depth: -(2-10) mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat, Borai INDIA
• Gujarat, Paga INDIA
• Gujarat, Manmarudi INDIA
• Gujarat, Langamarudi INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pullivasal Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manauli Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Pongibalu INDIA
• INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, New Islet Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.2) INDIA (Record: 03/2005-05/2005)

Literature Source(s)
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
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  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
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  • Raghuram, KP and Venkataraman, K (2005) Staghorn corals of Gulf of Mannar Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 25-35 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) The distribution of shallow-water stony corals at Minicoy atoll in the Indian ocean with a check-list of species Atoll Research Bulletin CMFRI 141 1-12 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6047/1/1.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
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  • Raguraman, R; Sreeraj, CR; Immanuel, T and Raghunathan, C (2010) Intensive study on the Scleractinian coral diversity of Pongibalu, south andaman Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(1) 29-36 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Sukumaran, S; George, RM and Kasinathan, C (2007) Biodiversity and community structure of coral reefs around Krusadai Island, Gulf of Mannar, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 54(3) 275-282 Available at - http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IJF/article/view/6940/2673

Page last updated on:2013-05-24

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