Penaeus indicus [Status Unaccepted]   H. Milne Edwards,  1837 (Prawn)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class: Malacostraca
Order:Decapoda
Family:Penaeidae

Description
Color: Whitish and translucent with scattered chromatophores which are brownish or grayish, spread over the body and appendages. The antennae and terminal portions of the appendages are pinkish. The antennular flagellae are banded lemon yellow. The telson and he uropods are deeply pigmented brown.

Body completely glabrous. Rostrum slender, long with distinct double curve, first five dorsal teeth close together, penultimate and distal teeth widely separated, position of latter variable. Rostrum becomes shorter with increasing size, almost straight and with higher blade. Rostrum extending beyond tip of antennular scale in large prawns, blade high but not forming a triangular crest. Adrostral groove shallow, decreasing in depth backwaters up to epigastric tooth. Eight to nine (sometimes seven) dorsal and four to five ventral teeth on rostrum. Carapace glabrous, thin, sulci and carina feebly defined. Gastro-orbital carina occupying the posterior 2/3 distance between hepatic spine and orbital angle. Orbitoantennal sulcus wide and ill-defined. Postantennular spine continued as an oblique ridge to the hepatic spine. Subhepatic ridge absent. Abdominal segments four to five keeled, keel on sixth segment ending acutely. Telson grooved, without lateral spines. Second and third joints of the first leg and second joint of the second leg provided with a spine.The rostrum is long and slender with a double curve, with 7-9 dorsal teeth and 4-5 ventral teeth. In males the endopodites of the first pair of abdominal appendages bearing hooks medially join together to form a structure known as the petasma which serves to transfer the spermatophores to the female during mating. The sternum of the last thoracic segment in females has a characteristic outgrowth called the thelycum enclosing a space for the reception of spermatophores from the male. Slight differences in the shapes of the petasma and thelycum help identification of the penaeid prawns. In Penaeus indicus the tip of the median lobe of the petasma is rounded and its distal margin is serrated with 12 calcified teeth. The median process of the thelycum is small and semicircular with minute apical spines on its border. The lateral plates are large and accommodate the seminal receptacles. Median lobe of petasma rounded at tip, projecting forward up to the apex of the lateral lobe which is covered with sparsely set fine setae on outer surface.

Fertilization is external, the eggs being discharged into the surrounding water where spermatozoa liberated from seminal receptacles of the thelycum meet them. In penaeid prawns the fertilized eggs are never carried by the female.

Juveniles spend their life in the estuaries or backwaters till they attain about 120-140 mm length and return back to the sea where sexual maturity takes place.


Synonym (s)
Peneus indicus Alcock, 1906
Penaeus indicus Racek, 1965
Penaeus indicus George, 1969

Common Name (s)
• Indian White Shrimp (English)
• Naaran
• Indian White Prawn (English)
• Jumbo
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries)

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Diatoms, planktonic algae, seaweeds, copepods, ostracods, amphipods, other smaller crustaceans including their larval stages, hydroids, molluscan larvae, polychaetes, foraminiferans

Biogeography


• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari INDIA
• Red Sea
• SRI LANKA
• Orissa, Satpara INDIA (Record: 05/12/1985, 27/06/1986, 29/06/1986)
• Orissa, Balugaon INDIA (Record: 14/12/1985, 20/06/1986)
• Orissa, Rambha INDIA (Record: 15/06/1986)
• Orissa, Nalabana Island INDIA (Record: 18/06/1986)
• West Bengal, Canning, Nikarighat INDIA (Record: 05/05/1982)
• West Bengal, Namkhana INDIA (Record: 31/12/1983)
• West Bengal, Patharpratima, Rashaskhali INDIA (Record: 16/08/1984)
• West Bengal, Sonakhali INDIA (Record: 03/04/1985)
• West Bengal, Canning, Belekhali INDIA (Record: 17/03/1987)
• West Bengal, Netidhopani INDIA (Record: 31/08/1987)
• West Bengal, Sandeshkhali INDIA (Record: 08/11/1988)
• West Bengal, Saznekhali INDIA (Record: 14/03/1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove INDIA (Record: 04/1980-03/1982)
• Tamil Nadu, Thondi INDIA (Record: 06/2005-05/2006)
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA (Record: 1997-1998)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.42) (Long: 79.79) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Off Mumbai INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahuva INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Kol INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Estuary INDIA
• INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Bhasra Munda INDIA (Record: 23/06/1986)
• Orissa, Barakul Panthanivas INDIA (Record: 16/06/1986, 18/06/1986, 18/06/1986)
• Orissa, Pandanasi Point INDIA (Record: 16/12/1985)
• Orissa, Siari golla INDIA (Record: 07/12/1985)
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Gujarat, Off Kandla INDIA (Record: 1986-1987)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA
• North West Coast INDIA
• South West Coast INDIA
• South East Coast INDIA
• North East Coast INDIA
• Andaman Sea INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Adyar Backwaters INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cooum Estuary (Lat: 13.16) (Long: 80.26) INDIA

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