Sillaginopsis panijus   (Hamilton,  1822) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Vidthayanon, C

Size: 44.0 cm TL.

Color: Body greenish yellow above, lower half paler to whitish; fins pale brownish.

Body elongate, partly cylindrical. The head and snout greatly depressed, the eyes are very small. Teeth in villiform bands in jaws and on vomer, the outer row in both jaws slightly enlarged with the two anterior-most teeth in upper jaw caninoid. Lower gillrakers 6 on first arch. Two dorsal fins; the first with 10 spines, the second spine filamentous; second fin with 1 spine and 26 or 27 soft rays. Anal fin with 2 spines and 24 to 26 soft rays. Scales small; lateral line with 84 to 88 scales. Swimbladder absent.

Oviparous, dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers. Spawn twice a year during the months of November to February and August to September. Sexually mature upon reaching a length of 12 cm.

Synonym (s)
Cheilodipterus panijus Hamilton, 1822
(Senior synonym)
Sillaginopsis domina (Cuvier, 1829)
(Junior synonym)
Sillaginopsis panijus (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Sillago domina Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Sillago panijus (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Cheilodipterus panijus Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Sillago panijus Day, 1876
Sillago domina Cuvier : Day, 1876
Sillago panjius (Hamilton, 1822)

Common Name (s)
• Flathead Sillago (English)
• Tool Belle (Bengali)
• Tool Maach (Bengali)
• Gangetic Sillago (English)
• Gangetic Whiting (English)
• Tool Danti (Oriya)
• Yarra Soring (Telugu)
• Sand Whiting (English)
• Lad Fish (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen)

Habitat:  Benthic, Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, nekton, zooplankton, finfish, bony fish, benthic algae/weeds, other plants


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• West Bengal, Hugli Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Pondicherry INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Hayward Craig, J (1996) Revision of diplectanid monogeneans (Monopisthocotylea, Diplectanidae) in sillaginid fishes, with a description of a new species of Monoplectanum Zoologica Scripta 25(3) 203-213 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • McKay, RJ (1976) The fishes of the family Sillaginidae from india with description of a new species journal of marine biological association of india Marine biological association of india, Cochin 18(2) 375-385 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-11

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