Liza parsia   (Hamilton,  1822) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Rahman, AKA

Size: 15-16 cm.

Color: Body greenish brown above, flanks and belly white to silvery; a golden spot on upper portion of operculum. Edge of both dorsal fins dusky; caudal fin base yellowish.

Body slender; head moderately wide, flattened on top, its length 23 to 26% of standard length. Fatty (adipose) tissue covers most of the posterior iris, rather less of anterior portion; lips thin, lower lip with high symphysial knob; hind end of upper jaw reaching vertical between posterior nostril and anterior rim of eye. Teeth labial, two rows of short teeth in upper lip, lower lip edentate. Preorbital wide, filling space from lip to eye, notched anteriorly. Two widely separated dorsal fins; first fin with 4 spines, second fin with 1 spine and 8 soft rays; origin of first dorsal fin nearer to tip of snout than to caudal fin base. Anal fin with 3 spines and 9 soft rays. Pectoral fins short, about 3/4 of head length, with no axillary scale. Caudal fin slightly forked. Scales on body cycloid in juveniles, ctenoid in adults; scales in lateral series 31 to 36.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers. Eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive.

Synonym (s)
Mugil parsia Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Mugil olivaceus Day, 1876
(Junior synonym)
Mugil parsia Hamilton, 1822
(Senior synonym)
Myxus parsia (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Mugil oligolepis Bleeker and Day, 1876
Liza persia (Hamilton, 1822)

Common Name (s)
• Goldspot mullet (English)
• Kanbo (Malayalam)
• Boi (Marathi)
• Sherto (Marathi)
• Avele-meen (Tamil)
• Madavai (Tamil)
• Bonthalu (Telugu)
• Gold-spot Mullet
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquaculture. Sold fresh in markets; the roe is highly valued.)
Cultured:  Yes

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Primary Consumer
Prey:  Plants, phytoplankton (diatoms)


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• East Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1991-12/1992)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA (Record: 1997-1998)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• West Bengal, Hugli-Matla Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Adyar Estuary INDIA (Record: 07/1985-06/1987)
• Kerala, Kovalam INDIA (Record: 07/1985-06/1987)
• West Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1991-12/1992)
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA (Record: 06/1991-05/1992)
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.26) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 01/2003-12/2003)
• Kerala, Ayiramthengu INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 09/2001-05/2002)
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Kerala, Kayamkulam Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Adyar Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat, Jakhau-Babber Creek (Lat: 23.5) (Long: 68.6) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Medi-Sinthodi Creek (Lat: 23.45) (Long: 68.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Mishra, SS; Pradhan, P; Kar, S and Chakraborty, SK (2003) Records of the Zoological Survey of India: Ichthyofaunal diversity of Midnapore, Bankura and Hooghly districts, south west Bengal ZSI, Kolkata 65 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Raj, PJS, Tilak, JL and Kalaimani, G (2002) Experiments in restoration of benthic biodiversity in Pulicat Lake, south India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 37-45 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Sarkar, SK and Bhattacharya, AK (2003) Conservation of biodiversity of the coastal resources of Sundarbans, Northeast India: an integrated approach through environmental education Marine Pollution Bulletin Elsevier 47(1-6) 260-264 Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 3 Available at -
  • Mohanraj, G; Nammalwar, P; Kandaswamy, S and Sekar, AC (1994) Availability of grey mullet spawners in Adyar estuary and Kovalam backwater around Madras, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India CMFRI 36(1&2) 167-180 Available at -,N,K,S__167-180.pdf
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • Rengarajan, K (1995) Effects of some heavy metals copper, zinc and lead on certain tissues of Liza parsia (Hamilton-Buchanan) in different environments Mariculture Research under the Postgraduate Programme in Mariculture CMFRI special publication CMFRI 61 6-12 Available at -
  • Rajasegar, M and Sendhilkumar, R (2009) Finfish Resources of Karaikal,South East Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 1 (4) 330-332 Available at -
  • Balasubramanian, T and Ajmal, SK(Eds by) (2004) Checklist of fish fauna of Ayiramthengu mangroves,Kollam district, Kerala, India Seshaiyana 12(2) Available at -
  • Brinda, S; Srinivasan, M and Balakrishnan, S (2010) Studies on Diversity of Fin Fish Larvae in Vellar Estuary, Southeast Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 2 (1) 44-50 Available at -
  • Luther, G (1973) The grey mullet fishery resources of India Proceedings of the symposium on living resources of the seas around India CMFRI-Cochin 455-460 Available at -
  • Nammalwar, P; Mohanraj, G; Kandasamy, S and Sekhar, AC (1991) Finfish seed resources of Adyar estuary and Kovalam backwater around Madras, India Journal of marine biological association of India CMFRI, Kochi 33(1&2) 59-68 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nair, PVR; Luther, G and Adolph, C (1965) An ecological study of some pools near Mandapam (South India) formed as a result of the cyclone and tidal wave of 1964 Journal of the marine biological associaiton of India The marine biological association of India 7(2) 420-439 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Saravanakumar, A; Rajkumar, M; Serebiah, JS and Thivakaran, GA (2009) Fishery resources in arid zone mangroves in gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, northwest coast of India Journal of Ocean University of China Springer 8(3) 233-240 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-20

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