Verruculina enalia   (Kohlm.) Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm.,  1990 (Marine Fungus)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Fungi
Phylum:Ascomycota
Class: Dothideomycetes
Order:Pleosporales
Family:Testudinaceae

Description
Ascomata 242-310 µm high, 218-400 µm diameter, subglobose, completely immersed, carbonaceous, solitary, ampulliform or depressed-ellipsoidal, papillate, clypeate. Papillae surrounded by a blackish brown clypeus, conical; ostiolar canal obturbinate, filled with hyaline long, delicate, periphyses. Pseudoparaphyses rarely branched, septate, merging with periphyses in the ostiolar canal.
Asci 102-150 x 12-15 µm, thick walled, 8-spored, pedunculate, cylindrical, bitunicate, without apical apparatus.
Ascospores 17-22.5 x 8.5-10 µm, ellipsoidal, obliquely uniseriate, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, dark brown, verrucose to verruculose, sometimes with distinct small, hyaline, germ pore at each apex.


Synonym (s)
Didymosphaeria enalia Kohlm., 1966
Lojkania enalia (Kohlm.) M.E. Barr, 1990

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal

Biogeography


• Goa, Cortalim (Lat: 15.38) (Long: 73.88) INDIA
• Kerala, Edakkad INDIA (Record: 08/2005-12/2006)
• Kerala, Kavvai Backwater INDIA (Record: 08/2005-12/2006)
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest INDIA (Record: 08/2005-12/2006)
• Kerala, Tellicherry INDIA (Record: 08/2005-12/2006)
• Kerala, Muzhappilangad INDIA (Record: 08/2005-12/2006)
• Kerala, Vellikeel INDIA (Record: 08/2005-12/2006)
• Kerala, Kattampally INDIA (Record: 08/2005-12/2006)
• Kerala, Kadalundi Estuary (Lat: 11.07) (Long: 75.81) INDIA (Record: 06/2006-03/2007)
• Kerala, Kadalundi Estuary (Lat: 11.14) (Long: 75.9) INDIA (Record: 06/2006-03/2007)
• Kerala, Kavvai-Kunhimangalam Backwater (Lat: 11.99) (Long: 75.11) INDIA (Record: 06/2006-03/2007)
• Kerala, Kavvai-Kunhimangalam Backwater (Lat: 12.07) (Long: 75.26) INDIA (Record: 06/2006-03/2007)
• Kerala, North Malabar Coast INDIA (Record: 11/2004-01/2005)
• Kerala, Chettuva Backwater INDIA (Record: 06/2006, 12/2006, 03/2007)
• Kerala, Kadalundi Backwater INDIA (Record: 12/2006)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Delta INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Kerala INDIA (Record: 05/2005-05/2007)
• West Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 06/2006-03/2007)
• Karnataka, Udyavara Mangrove INDIA (Record: 10/1999, 03/2000)
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Delta (Lat: 16.23) (Long: 82.23) INDIA (Record: 08/1993-11/1995)
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Delta (Lat: 16.75) (Long: 82.33) INDIA (Record: 08/1993-11/1995)
• Andhra Pradesh, Krishna Delta (Lat: 15.83) (Long: 80.75) INDIA (Record: 08/1993-11/1995)
• Andhra Pradesh, Krishna Delta (Lat: 15.91) (Long: 80.83) INDIA (Record: 08/1993-11/1995)
• Karnataka, Nethravathi Mangrove (Lat: 12.83) (Long: 74.83) INDIA
• Kerala, North Malabar INDIA (Record: 07/2006-09/2007)
• Kerala, Kavvai-Kunhimangalam Backwater INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Poonytha, AD; Hydeb, KE and Peerally, A (1999) Intertidal fungi in Mauritian mangroves Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 42 243-252 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vishwakiran, Y; Thakur, NL; Raghukumar, S; Yennawar, PL and Anil, AC (2001) Spatial and temporal distribution of fungi and wood borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter Berlin 44(1) 47–56 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/BOT.2001.007
  • Prasannarai, K and Sridhar, KR (2003) Fungal assemblage and diversity on periodically sampled intertidal woody litter Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, INDIA 32 (4) 329-333 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Nambiar, GR and Raveendran, K (2008) Marine and manglicolous fungal diversity in the coastal wetlands of Kerala Proceedings of the national symposium on marine and coastal ecosystems 27-29, August 2007 Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 30 107-111 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Ng, PKL and Sivasothi, N (eds.) (2001) Guide to mangroves of Singapore Available at - http://mangrove.nus.edu.sg/guidebooks/contents.htm
  • Nambiar, GR and Raveendran, K (2009) Frequency and abundance of marine mycoflora in mangrove ecosystem of north Malabar, Kerala (India) Academic Journal of Plant Sciences IDOSI Publications 2(2) 65-68 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/ajps/2(2)09/2.pdf
  • Sarma, VV (1999) Marine lignicolous fungi. A database on taxonomy NIO, Goa Available at - http://niobioinformatics.in/fungi/index.htm
  • Nambiar, GR; Pratheesh, PV and Raveendran, K (2006) Pokkali associated marine fungi of north Malabar region of Kerala coastal waters Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association and Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute 28(1) 55-61 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nambiar, GR and Raveendran, K (2009) Marine mycoflora in backwater ecosystem of Kerala, India The Journal of Environmental Biology Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow 30(5) 647-649 Available at - http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/200909_sep09/paper_04.pdf
  • Vittal, BRP and Sarma, VV (2006) Diversity and ecology of fungi on mangroves of Bay and Bengal region - An overview Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 35(4) 308-317 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/items-by-author?author=Vittal%2C+B.P.R.
  • Nambiar, GR and Raveendran, K (2008) A checklist of marine fungi from Kerala state, India American-Eurasian Journal of Botany IDOSI Publications 1(3) 73-77 Available at - www.idosi.org/aejb/1(3)08/2.pdf
  • Prasannarai, K and Sridhar, KR (2001) Diversity and abundance of higher marine fungi on woody substrates along the west coast of India Current science Current science association 81(3) 304-311 Available at - www.ias.ac.in/currsci/aug102001/304.pdf
  • Nambiar, GR; Raveendran, K and Jaleel, CA (2009) Marine mycoflora of south India with special emphasis on lignicolous marine fungi Frontiers of Biology in China Springer 4(4) 436-441 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11515-009-0048-z
  • Maria, GL; and Sridhar, KR (2003) Diversity of filamentous fungi on woody litter of five mangrove plant species from the southwest coast of India Fungal Diversity Fungal Diversity Press 14 109-126 Available at - www.fungaldiversity.org/fdp/sfdp/14-9.pdf
  • Sarma, VV and Vittal, BPR (2000) Biodiversity of mangrove fungi on different substrata of Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia spp. from Godavari and Krishna deltas, east coast of India Fungal Diversity Fungal Diversity Press 5 23-41 Available at - www.fungaldiversity.org/fdp/sfdp/FD_5_23-41.pdf
  • Sridhar, KR and Maria, GL (2006) Fungal diversity on mangrove woody litter Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae) Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 35(4) 318-325 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/1531/1/IJMS%2035%284%29%20318-325.pdf
  • Nambiar, GR and Raveendran, K (2009) Manglicolous Marine Fungi on Avicennia and Rhizophora along Kerala coast (India) Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research IDOSI Publications 4(1) 48-51 Available at - www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr4(1)/11.pdf
  • Nambiar, RG and Raveendran, K (2009) Manglicolous marine fungi of Kerala (south India) Botany Research International IDOSI Publications 2 (3) 206-210 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/bri/2%283%2909/14.pdf
  • Sarma, VV; Hyde, KD and Vittal, BPR (2001) Frequency of occurrence of mangrove fungi from the east coast of India Hydrobiologia Kluwer Academic Publishers 455 41-53 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/n31v687x50x22l77/fulltext.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-03-15

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