Sillago sihama   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Sillaginidae

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Description
Size: 31 cm SL.

Color: Back light brown, lower ventral flanks and belly whitish or silvery, without dark blotches. Both dorsal fins and caudal fin dusky, other fins pale.

Body elongate, snout pointed. Mouth small and terminal. Villiform and vomerine teeth are present on jaws. Swim bladder with two anterior and two posterior extensions. The anterior extensions extend forward and diverge to terminate on each side of the basioccipital above the auditory capsule. Two lateral extensions commence anteriorly, each sending a blind tubule anterolaterally and then extending along the abdominal wall below the investing peritoneum to just posterior of the duct-like process. Two posterior tapering extensions of the swim bladder project into the caudal region, one usually longer than the other. The species has a low lateral line with about 70 scales. Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 13, Dorsal soft rays (total): 20 - 23, Anal spines: 2, Anal soft rays: 18-23.

Oviparous, dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers. Breeds in late summer to rainy season. Sexually mature at 13 to 14 cm length. Occurs at a temperature range of 26.0-29.0 °C. Forms schools in estuaries and bays; common along beaches, sandbars, mangrove creeks and estuaries; but very rarely captured by prawn trawling vessels. Buries itself in the sand when danger approaches. Feeds mainly on consists of polychaete worms, small prawns (Penaeus), other crustacea, shrimps and amphipods. Sexually mature at 13 to 14 cm length.

Max. reported age: 7 years.


Synonym (s)
Atherina sihama Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Sillago erythraea Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Platycephalus sihamus (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Sciaena malabarica Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Sillago acuta Cuvier, 1816
(Junior synonym)
Sillago lutea (non McKay, 1985)
(Misapplied name)
Sillago malabarica (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Sillago sihama Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Sillago vincenti (non McKay, 1980)
(Misapplied name)
Sillago sihama Ruppell, 1831
Sillago acuta Bleeker, 1849
Sillago malabarica Cantor, 1850
Sillago malabarica Bleeker, 1859
Sillago sihama Gunther, 1860
Sillago acuta Kner, 1867
Sillago sihama Klunzinger, 1870
Sillago sihama Bleeker, 1877
Sillago gracilis Alleyne and Macleay, 1876
Sillago sihama Day, 1888
Sillago sihama Steindachner and Doderlein, 1884
Sillago sihama Jordan and Snyder, 1902
Sillago sihama Gilchrist and Thompson, 1908
Sillago sihama Fowler and Bean, 1922
Sillago sihama Chaudhuri, 1923
Sillago sihama Barnard, 1927
Sillago sihama Fowler, 1928
Sillago ihama (Forsskal, 1775)
(misspelling)
Sillago sehama (Forsskal, 1775)
(misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Silver Sillago (English)
• Lady Fish (English)
• Renvi (Marathi)
• Murdoshi (Marathi)
• Nogali (Kannada)
• Poozhan (Malayalam)
• Kelangaan (Tamil)
• Culingah (Tamil)
• Soring (Telugu)
• Shorangi (Telugu)
• Sand Whiting (English)
• Whiting (English)
• Kunga (Gujarati)
• Kane (Kannada)
• Cudeerah (Malayalam)
• Noongal (Malayalam)
• Poovan (Malayalam)
• Pooyan (Malayalam)
• Mudadi (Marathi)
• Toul Danti (Oriya)
• Kelakkan (Tamil)
• Kelangan (Tamil)
• Kilangan (Tamil)
• Arriti Ki (Telugu)
• Tella Soring (Telugu)
• Palisurangi
• Muddoshi (Konkani)
• Silver Whiting (English)
• Kilangan
• Sing
• Vekarkunga
• Muddosi
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen)
Cultured:  Yes

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Sandy
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, nekton, finfish, shrimps, other crustaceans, bony fish, fish eggs/larvae, benthic algae/weeds
Predator:  Paralichthys olivaceus, Dasyatis kuhlii

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Shoal Bay INDIA
• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• East Coast INDIA
• INDIA
• Maharashtra, Jaigad INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• Kerala, Shanghumugham INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA (Record: 1997-1998)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.26) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 01/2003-12/2003)
• Pondicherry INDIA
• Goa, Salcete INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 09/2001-05/2002)
• Kerala INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Adyar Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA
• West Bengal, Hugli Matla Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kimios Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Campbell Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Ramanathapuram INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1948-1950)
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA
• Off South West Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1962-12/1968) (Depth: 10-75 mts)
• Gujarat INDIA
• Gujarat, Jakhau-Babber Creek (Lat: 23.5) (Long: 68.6) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Sangi-Kharo Creek (Lat: 23.28) (Long: 68.51) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Medi-Sinthodi Creek (Lat: 23.45) (Long: 68.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Adyar Backwaters INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cooum Estuary (Lat: 13.16) (Long: 80.26) INDIA

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