Enhydrina schistosa   (Daudin,  1803) (Marine Snake)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Reptilia

Image copyrights: Teresa Zubi

Size: Total length 282mm-1.2m; tail 87-108 mm.

Color: Young has gray to black annuli, while juveniles has 45-55 transverse bars that may extend down the flanks with the lower body whitish and without pattern. Adults are uniform gray above, whitish below. Dark bars wider or as wide than paler interspaces.

This snake is distinguished by its higher rostral from other members of the family. Dorsals 60-63.


Synonym (s)
Hydrophis schistosus Daudin, 1803
Enhydrina schistosa Stoliczka, 1870

Common Name (s)
• Beaked Sea Snake (English)
• Valakadiyan
• Common Sea Snake (English)
• Hook-nosed Sea Snake (English)
• Beaked Sea Snake (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Dangers
(It is very aggressive in disposition and its venom is found to be much more powerful than that of cobra.)

Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Fish


• Kerala, Kochi Coast INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• Persian Gulf
• Bay of Bengal
• Tamil Nadu, Ennore INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Adyar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Covelong INDIA
• Orissa, Off Rambha INDIA
• Orissa, Barkul INDIA
• Karnataka, Netrani Island (Lat: 14.03) (Long: 74.55) INDIA (Record: 05/2006) (Depth: -(10-15) mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai (Lat: 11.83) (Long: 79.80) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Off Kerala Coast INDIA
• East Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Uetz, P EMBL reptile database Available at - http://www.reptile-database.org/
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Ahmed, S and Dasgupta, G (1992) Reptilia State fauna series 3: Fauna of West Bengal. Part 2 ZSI, Calcutta 1-65 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Starfish Available at - http://www.starfish.ch/
  • Murthy, TSN (1995) Reptilia and Amphibia Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilka lake ZSI, Calcutta 507-560 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zacharia, PU; Krishnakumar, PK; Dineshbabu, AP; Vijayakumaran, K; Rohit, P; Thomas, S; Sasikumar, G; Kaladharan, P; Durgekar, RN and Mohamed, KS (2008) Species assemblage in the coral reef ecosystem of Netrani Island off Karnataka along the southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 87-97 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Palot, MJ and Radhakrishnan, C (2010) First record of yellow-bellied sea snake Pelamis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Reptilia: Hydrophiidae) from a riverine tract in northern Kerala, India Journal of Threatened Taxa Wildlife Information Liaison Development Society 2(9) 1175-1176 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2010/August/o228426viii101175-1176.pdf
  • Damotharan, P; Arumugam, M; Vijayalakshmi, S and Balasubramanian, T (2010) Diversity, Biology and ecology of sea snakes (Hydrophiidae)distributed along the Parangipettai coast, southeast coast of India International journal of current research 4 62-69 Available at - http://www.journalcra.com/?q=node/176
  • Padmanaban, P; Venkatraman, C; Palot, MJ and Radhakrishnan, C. A checklist of Sea Snakes (Reptilia) of India Zoological Survey of India Available at - http://zsi.gov.in/checklist/India%20Sea%20Snake.pdf
  • Dunson W A (1975) The Biology Of Sea Snakes University Park Press 523pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2012-11-15

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