Psettodes erumei   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 40-64 cm.

Max. weight reported: 9,000 gm

Color: Usually brown or grey, sometimes with 4 broad, dark crossbars. Dorsal, anal and caudal fin tips black. Blind side occasionally partially colored.

Body oval and flat, but thicker than in most other flatfishes. Mouth large with strong teeth, maxillary extends well beyond hind edge of lower eye, both eyes on left or right side, upper eye lying immediately below dorsal edge, gill rakers not developed. Dorsal fin origin well posterior to eyes, anterior fin rays spinous, lateral line almost straight.
Height 2.1-2.7, 2.5-3.3 in length with caudal. Head 2.9-3.5, 3.5-4 in length with caudal. Upper eye just visible from the blind sight, lower eye generally slightly smaller, placed somewhat more posteriorly than the upper eye. Eye 5.2-8.4, equal to one half of interorbital space, 3-4 in postorbital part of head. Maxillaries large, 1.1-1.4 in head, reaching much farther than eyes. Posterior and anterior nostrils close together, those of the upperside in front of interorbital space. Teeth in the jaws long distant canines, sharply pointed, some of them curved, hastated or sagittated, in two or three rows, the hindermost smaller and more crowded. Those of the inner row are flexible, the outer ones fixed. A patch of small teeth on vomer and in a single row on palatines. Glossohyal, basihyals and gillarches with curved teeth, replacing the gillrakers. Origin of dorsal in or somewhat behind vertical through hindborder of lower eye. End of dorsal slightly before that of anal, which begins below about the 19th dorsal ray. Pectorals somewhat shorter than or equal to postorbital part of head. Ventral of blind side inserted somewhat behind the other one, their length about 2/3 of that of pectorals. Caudal scalloped, the outer and middle rays being longer than the others. Head scaly to between the eyes, where the scales get rudimentary. On this side the maxillary is scaly too. Scales with fine granulated striae, diverging to the hindborder, which is undulated. Those on the abdomen almost smooth. Dorsal spines (total): 9 - 11, Dorsal soft rays (total): 38 - 45, Anal spines: 1, Anal soft rays: 33 - 43, Vertebrae: 23 - 25.

Dioecious, external fertilisation, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Pleuronectes erumei Bloch and Schneider, 1801
Psettodes erumei Day, 1875-78
Hippoglossus erumei Ruppell, 1828
Hippoglossus dentex Richardson, 1845
Hippoglossus orthorhynchus Richardson, 1846
Hippoglossus erumei Cantor, 1850
Hippoglossus erumei Bleeker, 1852
Psettodes erumei Bleeker, 1862
Psettodes erumei Gunther, 1862
Psettodes erumei Kner, 1867
Psettodes erumei Bleeker, 1872
Psettodes erumei Klunzinger, 1871
Psettodes erumei Jordan and Seale, 1906
Psettodes erumei Bean and Weed, 1912
Psettodes erumei Barnard, 1925
Psettotes erumei (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Hippoglossus erumei (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Common Name (s)
• Indian Spiny Turbot (English)
• Indian Halibut (English)
• Indian Turbot (English)
• Haro Jeeb (Gujarati)
• Bhakas (Marathi)
• Erumai nakku
• Hario
• Moti Jeeb
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen)

Habitat:  Pelagic, Demersal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, cephalopods, finfish, bony fish, shrimps and other bottom living animal
Predator:  Carcharhinus tilstoni (Shark)


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Gulf of Oman
• Persian Gulf
• Kerala, Trivandrum INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Arabian Sea INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 40-75 mts)
• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 40-75 mts)
• Kerala, Off Kochi INDIA (Record: 03/1954-07/1955)
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Bengal, Digha Mohana (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Orissa Coast, INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2012-01-11

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