Cynoglossus lingua   Hamilton-Buchanan,  1822 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Size: 40-45 cm.

Color: In preserved specimens reddish or greyish, with indistinct dark cloudy patches. Opercular region blackish. Fins with a dark edge. Blind side colorless.

Very elongate, snout pointed. Height 4.7-5.3, 5.3-5.7 in length with caudal. Head 4-4.4, 4.4-4.8 in length with caudal. Eyes 11-15, one eyediameter or less apart, the upper one somewhat in advance of the lower one. Posterior nostril on colored side pierced through interorbital space, the anterior one tubular, near upper lip. Nostrils on blind side at some distance behind each other, above curve of mouthopening. Corner of mouth below or somewhat behind hindborder of lower eye, nearer to branchial opening than to end of snout. Hook of upper jaw reaching farther backward than symphysis of lower jaw, but not so far as vertical through frontborder of upper eye. Scales ctenoid on colored side, but in most of the scales the spines are soon worn off and they therefore make the impression of being cycloid. The scales on the blind side are cycloid from the beginning. Two lateral lines on colored side, an upper and a middle one separated by 12 or 13 scales. On the blind side one indistinct lateral line.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Arelia lingua (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Plagusia macrorhynchos Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia lingua (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Cynoglossus acinaces Jenkins, 1910
(Junior synonym)
Arelia macrorhynchos (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Arelia potous (Cuvier, 1829)
(Junior synonym)
Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Pleuronectes potous Cuvier, 1836
Plagusia lingua Cantor, 1850
Plagusia potous Bleeker, 1852
Arelia lingua Kaup, 1858
Arelia potous Bleeker, 1859
Cynoglossus lingua Gunther, 1862
Cynoglossus macrorhynchus Kner, 1867
Cynoglossus potous Bleeker, 1872
Cynoglossus lingua Day, 1888
Cynoglossus lingua Vinciguerra 1890
Cynoglossus potous (Cuvier, 1829)
(Junior synonym)
Plagusia potous (Cuvier, 1829)
(Junior synonym)
Pleuronectes potous Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Long Tongue Sole (English)
• Naakku meen
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh or frozen, dried and salted)

Habitat:  Benthic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Benthic invertebrates


• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• West Bengal, Hugli Matla Estuary INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1929) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E. J. Brill Ltd. 5 458 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Gopalakrishnan, V (1971) The biology of the Hooghly-Matlah estuarine system (West Bengal, India) with special reference to its fisheries Journal of marine biological association of india Marine biological association of india 13(2) 182-194 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Tike, MJ; Samant, JS; Mohite, SA (2009) Diversity status of minor fish and shellfish along Malvan coast, Maharshtra Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology Indian Journal of Applied and Pure Biology, India 24(2) 441-448 Available at -

Page last updated on:2012-01-31

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