Valamugil cunnesius   (Valenciennes,  1836) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Size: 25-41 cm.

Color: Back dark grey, flanks and belly silvery; dark spot on base of pectoral fin.

Body moderately robust; head wide, flattened above, its length 24 to 26% of standard length. Adipose tissue covering half iris. Lips thin, lower lip with high symphysial knob; hind end of upper jaw on vertical from anterior rim of eye. Teeth labial, short and scattered in upper lip; long, ciliate and spaced in lower lip. Preorbitals wide, filling the space between lip and eye, notched anteriorly, filling with age. Two widely separated dorsal fins; first fin with 4 spines, and second fin with 1 spine and 8 soft rays; origin of first dorsal fin slightly nearer to snout tip than to base of caudal fin. Anal fin with 3 spines and 9 soft rays, its origin in advance of second dorsal fin. Pectoral fins long, equal to or slightly shorter than head length, extending to vertical between 3rd and 4th spines of first dorsal fin; with a long axillary scale. Caudal fin forked. Scales in lateral series 30 to 35.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive.

Synonym (s)
Mugil cunnesius Valenciennes, 1836
Mugil amarulus Valenciennes : Day, 1876
Mugil kelaartii Gunther : Day, 1876
Liza strongylocephalus (Richardson, 1846)
(Junior synonym)
Moolgarda cunnesius (Valenciennes, 1836)
(Senior synonym)
Mugil amarulus Valenciennes, 1836
(Junior synonym)
Mugil cunnesius Valenciennes, 1836
(Senior synonym)
Mugil kelaarti Gunther, 1861
(Junior synonym)
Mugil kelaartii Gunther, 1861
(Junior synonym)
Mugil longimanus Gunther, 1861
(Junior synonym)
Mugil ophuysenii Bleeker, 1858-59
(Junior synonym)
Mugil strongylocephalus Richardson, 1846
(Junior synonym)
Myxus cunnesius (Valenciennes, 1836)
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Longarm Mullet (English)
• Longfin Mullet (English)
• Kunnesee (Telugu)
• Avelemeen (Tamil)
• Boi (Marathi)
• Bhadvi (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries and bait. Marketed fresh and salted.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Benthic algae/weeds, diatoms, gastropods, planktonic copepods and debris


• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• West Bengal, Off Digha Coast INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kayamkulam Lake INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at -
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sabu, S; Gibinkumar, TR; Pravin, P and Boopendranath, MR (2011) Performance evaluation of bigeye bycatch reduction device in the seas off Cochin, India Fishery technology Society of fisheries technologists 48(1) 41-50 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-23

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