Nibea soldado   (Lacepede,  1802) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Size: Maximum 60 cm; common to 40 cm

Color: Silvery with faint series of oblique stripes along scale rows; margin of soft dorsal fin black edged, pectoral and pelvic fins with a yellowish tinge.

A fairly large species with an arched back and deep body. Snout is rounded, but not swollen or projecting. Upper jaw length 38-44 % of head length, lower jaw length 44-53 % of head length. Mouth terminal and at a low angle to the horizontal; rostral pores 3, very small, marginal pores 5; mental pores 5, first pair of mental pores close together, united by a crescent-shaped groove just behind symphysis. Teeth differentiated into large and small in both jaws. Sagitta (large earstone) with a tadpole-shaped impression, the "tail" of which is deeply grooved, cutting into the ventral edge; gillrakers on lower limb of first arch 8 or 9. Dorsal fin with 9 or 10 spines, followed by a deep notch, second part of fin with 1 spine and 28 to 31 soft rays. Pectoral fins short, about 2/3 of head length. Anal fin with 2 spines and 7 soft rays, second spine very strong and nearly half of head length. Caudal fin rhomboid. Scales cycloid (smooth) on head and chest, elsewhere ctenoid (rough to touch); lateral line scales reaching to tip of caudal fin. Swimbladder carrot-shaped, abruptly constricted posteriorly to its tubular end, with 18-22 pairs of arborescent appendages along its sides, the first pair entering head beyond transverse septum, the two last simple and parallel to tubular end of bladder, the rest arborescent with no dorsal limb.

Synonym (s)
Johnius soldado (Fowler)
Pseudosciaena soldado (Weber & de Beaufort)
Wak soldado (Chu, Lo & Wu)
Corvina argentea Macleay, 1883
(Junior synonym)
Corvina celebica Bleeker, 1854
(Junior synonym)
Corvina miles Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Corvina sampitensis Bleeker, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Corvina wolffii Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Holocentrus soldado Lacepede, 1802
(Senior synonym)
Johnius soldado (Lacepede, 1802)
(Senior synonym)
Nibea soldado (Lacepede, 1802)
(Senior synonym)
Otolithes soldado (Lacepede, 1802)
(Senior synonym)
Paranibea semiluctuosa (non Cuvier, 1830)
(Misapplied name)
Pseudosciaena soldado (Lacepede, 1802)
(Senior synonym)
Sciaena miles (Cuvier, 1829)
(Junior synonym)
Sciaena muelleri Steindachner, 1879
(Junior synonym)
Wak soldado (Lacepede, 1802)
(Senior synonym)
Sciaena miles Day, 1876

Common Name (s)
• Greenback Jewfish (English)
• Croaker (English)
• Drum (English)
• Soldier Croaker (English)
• Goli (Kannada)
• Kora (Malayalam)
• Pallikora (Malayalam)
• Kathalai (Tamil)
• Panna (Tamil)
• Vanakathalai (Tamil)
• Vella Katchelee (Tamil)
• Vellaikathalai (Tamil)
• Gorasa (Telugu)
• Pullipanna (Telugu)
• Tella Katchelee (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen, dried and salted)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Fishes and invertebrates


• Goa, Marmagao Bay INDIA
• Goa, Aguada Bay INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Kakinada INDIA (Record: 1990-1999)
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.81) INDIA (Record: 12/2005-11/2006) (Depth: 12-30 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Mishra, SS; Pradhan, P; Kar, S and Chakraborty, SK (2003) Records of the Zoological Survey of India: Ichthyofaunal diversity of Midnapore, Bankura and Hooghly districts, south west Bengal ZSI, Kolkata 65 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ansari, ZA; Chatterji, A; Ingole, BS; Sreepada, RA; Rivonkar, CU and Parulekar, AH (1995) Community structure and seasonal variation of an inshore demersal fish community at Goa, west coast of India Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 41 593-610 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Sivakami, S and Ramalingam, P (2003) The Sciaenid fishery resources off Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 74-87 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ansari, ZA; Sreepada, RA; Dalal, SG; Ingole, BS and Chatterji, A (2003) Environmental influences on the trawl catches in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Elsevier 56(3-4) 503-515 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 3 Available at -
  • Veerappan, N; Anbalagan, T and Balasubramanian, T (2009) Survey on sound producing marine fishes and Ichthyoplankters of Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science International Digital Organization for Scientific Information 6(1) 35-40 Available at -
  • Ramani, K; Ammini, PL; Srinivasan, J; Najeemudeen, SH; Beena, MR; George, KP; Seynudeen, MB; Subbaraman, G; Anandan, K; Khambadkar, LL; Augustine, SK; Pugazhendi, D; Rudhramurthy, N; Subramani, S; Seetharaman, S; Batcha, HK and Sankaralingam, S (2010) An overview of marine fisheries in India during 2007 Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Kochi 203 1-14 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Sciaenid Fishes Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Roy, SD; Rajan, PT and Soundararajan, S (2006) Marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fishing Chimes 25(10) 108-110 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-25

Back to Search