Xylocarpus granatum   Konig  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Equisetopsida

Image copyrights: Paul MAREK

Trees, up to 20 m tall, trunk ca 70 cm in diameter at base, buttressed; bark yellowish-white, peeling off as papery flakes. Leaves unijugate or bijugate; leaflets 6-10 x 3.5 cm, obovate, entire, rounded at apex, tapering at base. Flowers 5-7 mm across, white with a reddish gland within, in axillary thyrses; calyx 4 lobed; petals 4, free. Fruits large, 30-40 cm across, globose, septafragal capsules, splitting tardily into 4 valves. Seeds 10-15 in number, pyramid shaped with a corky testa.

Flowering and fruiting almost throughout the year especially during April-August (West Bengal), throughout the seasons(Orissa, Andhra Pradesh), August-October (Tamil Nadu).

Commonly found in association with Rhizophora, Kandelia candel and Sonneratia apetala. Xylocarpus granatum can be distinguished from the other two species of Xylocarpus by its buttressed stem, absence of pneumatophores, obovate leaves and large globose fruits with pyramidal seeds.

Synonym (s)
Carapa obovata Blume
Xylocarpus benadirensis Mattei
Xylocarpus obovatus (Blume) Juss.

Common Name (s)
• Dhundul (Bengali)
• Pohar (Bengali)
• Pussur (Hindi)
• Pitamari (Oriya)
• Somunthiri (Tamil)
• Chenuga (Telugu)
• Cannon Ball Mangrove (English)
• Dhundal
• Shishumar
• Senuga
• Sagamunthiri
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Its timber is used for making furniture, agricultural implements and yields tannin, seed oil is used for illumination and grooming hairs, seed-paste is used for relief of breast tumor. Bark is used to cure cholera, malaria, fever and astringent. The seed is used to cure insect bite and the wood is used as firewood and for construction of houses.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer


• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wandoor INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Beadonabad INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Sipighat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Manjeri INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wright Myo INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, False Point INDIA
• West Bengal, Jambu INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, A; Mukherjee, S; Sen, N; Dasgupta, M and Naskar, KR (2002) Checklist of mangroves and mangrove associated species in the Indian Sundarbans Seshaiyana Environmental Information System(ENVIS)Centre, C.A.S. in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 10(2) 39877 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Veenakumari, K; Mohanraj, P and Bandyopadhyay, AK (1997) Insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the mangals of the Andaman and Nicobar islands Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis Ltd 31 1105-1126 Available at - http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~db=all~content=a770600286~fulltext=713240930?words=insect,herbivores,their,natural,enemies,mangals,andaman,nicobar,islands
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Upadhyay, VP; Mishra, PK and Sahu, JR (2008) Distribution of mangrove species within Bhitarkanika national park in Orissa, India Trees for Life Journal www.TFLJournal.org Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/eprints11/Trees_Life_J_3_5pp.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-27

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