Sonneratia griffithii   Kurz  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Myrtales
Family:Lythraceae

Image copyrights: Paul MAREK

Description
Large trees up to 20 m tall, crown large, branches many, drooping; pneumatophores numerous, corky. Leaves 6-12 x 3-7 cm, obovate or suborbicular, thickly coriaceous, emarginate at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers 6-8 cm across, apetalous, greenish-white, solitary at apices of terminal branchlets; calyx 6-8-merous, spreading in fruit; stamens many, white. Fruits 5-9 cm across, ovoid-globose, flattened or depressed above, partly enclosed by persistent calyx at base. seeds many.

Flowering and fruiting from April-September, April- October (West Bengal), February-July (Orissa).

Sonneratia griffithii is distinguished from the other two species from its obovate leaves, large solitary white flowers with stamens and larger globose fruits flatterned or depressed at apex.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Ora (Oriya)
• Mangrove Apple (English)
• Orua Chakada
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Its stem is used for paper pulp, matches, and as poles; leaves as fodder; its fruits are reportedly pickled and eaten. Wood is used as firewood.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Chittagong BANGLADESH
• Sundarbans BANGLADESH
• Mergui MYANMAR
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, A; Mukherjee, S; Sen, N; Dasgupta, M and Naskar, KR (2002) Checklist of mangroves and mangrove associated species in the Indian Sundarbans Seshaiyana Environmental Information System(ENVIS)Centre, C.A.S. in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 10(2) 39877 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kathiresan, K and Rajendran, N (2005) Grow mangroves for protecting coral reefs! Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 41-48 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-11-24

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