Dictyota dichotoma   (Hudson) J. V. Lamouroux,  1809 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Chromista
Phylum:Ochrophyta
Class: Phaeophyceae
Order:Dictyotales
Family:Dictyotaceae

Description
Size: Height 6-12 cm.

Color: Yellowish brown.

Thallus form and type: Frondose and bushy

Substratum: Intertidal rocks, coralline stones

Occurrence: Lower mid littoral zone, tide pools

Season: November-April

Plants ribbon-like, basal portion forming a small cuneate disc, upper portion regularly branched dichotomously. Branches flat, of uniform breadth from above the bases to apices, slightly broader at the bases, internodal segments 1-2.5 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, margins entire, apices rounded, obtuse or sometimes acute. Thallus composed of superficial layers enveloping a middle layer; the former formed of small, more or less squarish cells, thin walled, richly provided with chromatophores; cells of the middle layer large, thick-walled, more or less squarish to rectangular, poor in contents.

Reproductive bodies occurring on separate thalli. Antheridia and oogonia in sori, distributed all over the surface of the thallus. Antheridial sori whitish, oogonial dark-brown, both associated with clusters of hairs. Antheridia cylindrical to clavate, oogonia club-shaped. Tetrasporangia occurring singly or in groups of 2-3 sometimes associated with tufts of hairs; spherical in shape.


Synonym (s)
Dictyota dichotoma (Desfontaines) S. Gr, 1821
Dictyota vulgaris (C. Agardh) Kutzing, 1845
Fucus implexus Desfontaines, 1799
Zonaria dichotoma C. Agardh, 1820
Ulva dichotoma Hudson, 1762
(Homotypic synonym)
Fucus zosteroides J. V. Lamouroux, 1805
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota rotundata Lamouroux, 1809
(Heterotypic synonym)
Zonaria dichotoma (Hudson) C. Agardh, 1817
(Homotypic synonym)
Zonaria rotundata (Lamouroux) C. Agardh, 1817
(Heterotypic synonym)
Fucus dichotomus (Hudson) Bertolini, 1819
(Homotypic synonym)
Haliseris dichotoma (Hudson) Sprengel, 1827
(Homotypic synonym)
Dictyota dichotoma var. acuta Chauvin ex Duby, 1830
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota setosa Duby, 1830
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dichophyllium dichotomum (Hudson) Kutzing, 1843
(Homotypic synonym)
Dictyota acuta Kutzing, 1845
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota volubilis Kutzing, 1849
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota acuta var. patens Kutzing, 1849
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota dichotoma var. rigida P. Crouan & H. Crouan, 1852
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota aequalis var. minor Kutzing, 1859
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota attenuata Kutzing, 1859
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota elongata Kutzing, 1859
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota latifolia Kutzing, 1859
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota dichotoma var. elongata (Kutzing) Grunow, 1874
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota dichotoma f. latifrons Holmes & Batters, 1890
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota areolata Schousboe, 1892
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota complanata Schousboe, 1892
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota dichotoma f. attenuata (Kutzing) Vinassa, 1892
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota dichotoma f. latifolia (Kutzing) Vinassa, 1892
(Heterotypic synonym)
Neurocarpus annularis Schousboe, 1892
(Heterotypic synonym)
Neurocarpus areolatus Schousboe, 1892
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota apiculata J. Agardh, 1894
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota vivesii M. A. Howe, 1911
Dictyota dichotoma var. minor Kutzing, 1981
(Heterotypic synonym)
Dictyota dichotoma f. spiralis Nizamuddin, 1981
(Heterotypic synonym)
Zonaria dichotoma C. Agardh, 1821
Dicophyllium dichotomum Kutzing, 1843
Dicophyllium vulgare Kutzing, 1843
Dictyota vulgaris Kutzing, 1845
Dictyota pardalis Kutzing, 1859
Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux, 1809
Dictyota acuminata Kutzing, 1849

Common Name (s)
• Forkweed (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Human food; source of phenols, vitamins (folic & folinic acids); larvicidal activity against mosquito larvae; antibacterial and antitumor activity. Alginate source.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Rocky, Sandy, Coastal

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.78) (Long: 78.13) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island, Galaxea reef INDIA (Record: 1940-1950)
• Tamil Nadu, Kodikkarai (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.86) INDIA (Record: 04/2006-05/2006)
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.17) (Long: 77.74) INDIA (Record: 12/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Pudumadam Coast (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79) INDIA (Record: 07/2007, 08/2007)
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri Coast, Bhatkarwada (Lat: 17.03) (Long: 73.33) INDIA
• Karnataka, Netrani Island (Lat: 14.01) (Long: 74.32) INDIA (Record: 10/05/2006) (Depth: -15 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Coast INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha Port INDIA
• Gujarat, Dwarka INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• BANGLADESH
• INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• MALDIVES
• MAURITIUS
• MOZAMBIQUE
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• SEYCHELLES
• SOUTH AFRICA
• SRI LANKA
• TANZANIA
• YEMEN
• Goa, Vagator INDIA
• Goa, Anjuna INDIA
• Goa, Baga INDIA
• Goa, Cabo de Rama INDIA
• Goa, Dona Paula INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Valinokkam-Kilakarai Coast INDIA (Record: 01/1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Off Kattapadu-Tiruchchendur Coast INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Arockiapuram Coast (Lat: 8.10) (Long: 77.57) INDIA (Record: 09/1995-11/1995)
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.71) INDIA (Record: 06/1992-05/1993)
• Tamil Nadu, Kattapadu-Tiruchchendur INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Alantalai-Manapad INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Vembar-Nallatanni Tivu INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Valinokkam-Kilakarai INDIA (Record: 01/1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad-Kanniyakumari INDIA (Record: 03/1990)
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai-Dhanushkodi INDIA (Record: 12/1990-01/1991)
• Gujarat, Karumbhar Island (Lat: 22.48) (Long: 69.61) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.26) (Long: 79.11) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Car Nicobar INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Orissa, Chilika lake (Lat: 19.64) (Long: 85.42) INDIA (Record: 12/12/2004, 23/02/2005)
• Orissa, Bahuda Estuary (Lat: 19.11) (Long: 84.77) INDIA (Record: 23/01/2005)
• Gujarat, Okha Port INDIA (Record: 05/2004, 02/2005)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, John Lawrence Island INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Neill Island INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Camorta INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Kerala, Kollam INDIA (Record: 04/2007-09/2007)
• Kerala, Varkala INDIA (Record: 04/2007-09/2007)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA (Record: 12/1986-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 12/1958-05/1959) (Depth: 13-16 mts)
• Lakshadweep, Bassas de Pedro (Lat: 13.5) (Long: 72.58) INDIA (Record: 12/1988) (Depth: 18-70 mts)
• Lakshadweep, Cora Divh (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 72.25) INDIA (Record: 12/1988) (Depth: 18-70 mts)
• Lakshadweep, Sesostris (Lat: 12.91) (Long: 72.08) INDIA (Record: 12/1988) (Depth: 18-70 mts)
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Kerala INDIA (Record: 08/1986-05/1987)
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchendur INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Karnataka, Honavar INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Maharashtra, Angria Bank (Lat: 16.45) (Long: 72.08) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Idinthakarai (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.73) INDIA (Record: 10/2003-12/2003)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam (Lat: 8.4) (Long: 76.93) INDIA (Record: 10/2003-12/2003)
• Karnataka INDIA (Record: 2005-2006)
• Gujarat, Shivrajpur INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA

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