Dinophysis caudata   Saville-Kent,  1881 (Dinoflagellate)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Chromista
Phylum:Myzozoa
Class: Peridinea
Order:Dinophysida
Family:Dinophysiaceae

Description
Size: Cell size 70-110 µm in length and 37-50 µm in dorso-ventral width (at base of LSL).

It is a very distinctive species that has a characteristic posterior finger-like process. Cells are large, long and irregularly subovate with a long ventral projection on the hypotheca. The extended process varies in length and shape, and is often toothed on its posterior end. The long left sulcal list (LSL) extends to nearly half of the total length of the cell. This species is usually widest at the base of the LSL. The thick thecal plates are heavily areolated, each areole with a pore.
The small epitheca is made up of four plates. The cingulum is narrow with two well developed lists, anterior cingular list (ACL) and posterior cingular list (PCL), supported by ribs. Both cingular lists are projected anteriorly. The wide ACL forms a wide and deep funnel obscuring the epitheca. The sulcus is comprised of several irregularly shaped plates. The flagellar pore is housed in the sulcal area. The wide LSL is supported by three ribs spaced equally apart. A right sulcal list (RSL) is also present. Both sulcal lists are often reticulated .
The hypotheca, with four large plates, comprises the majority of the cell. It is long, narrowing ventrally into a pointed posterior projection. The ventral margin is generally straight or undulate along the main body. The dorsal contour gradually curves: it is straight or slightly concave along the anterior half of the hypotheca, then is straight or convex in the posterior half running parallel to the ventral margin. The dorsal margin may also curve sharply towards the center where it turns to continue down the ventral posterior projection, which can bear small knob-like spines.


Synonym (s)
Dinophysis homunculus Stein, 1883
Dinophysis diegensis Kofoid, 1907

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Dangers
(Producer of okadaic acid, toxin implicated in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). It also produces PTX-2.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi and Zuari Estuary INDIA (Record: 11/1979-10/1980)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove INDIA (Record: 04/1980-03/1982)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 18/05/2001-21/05/2001, 18/11/2001-21/11/2001)
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA (Record: 1970-1972)
• Karnataka, Old Port of Mangalore (Lat: 12.86) (Long: 74.88) INDIA (Record: 28/12/2005 - 13/01/2006)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangroves (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Kerala, Punnapra INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kaduviyar estuary INDIA (Record: 10/2005-09/2006)
• West Coast INDIA
• Goa, Off Chapora INDIA
• Goa, Off Anjuna INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA (Record: 07/2008-12/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Keelakarai INDIA (Record: 07/2008-12/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.27) (Long: 79.39) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.82) (Long: 79.88) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• East Coast (Lat: 21) (Long: 94) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-08/2002)
• East Coast (Lat: 10) (Long: 79) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-08/2002)

Literature Source(s)
  • Krishnamurthy, K; Santhanam, R and Jothi, K (1977) The Dinophyta from Porto Novo, south India Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Marine Fisheries-623520, Tamil Nadu, India 2 64-67 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • Holmes, MJ; Teo, SLM; Lee, FC and Khoo, HW (1999) Persistent low concentrations of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in green mussels Perna viridis from the Johor Strait, Singapore: First record of diarrhetic shellfish toxins from South-East Asia Marine Ecology Progress Series 181 257-268 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Saad, MAH (1984) Proceedings of the Symposium on Coral Reef environment of the Red Sea King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia 1-681 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Abbaasi, SA (1997) Wetlands of India-Ecology and Threats Discovery Publishing House,New Delhi II 1-182 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Abbaasi, SA (1997) Wetlands of India-Ecology and Threats Discovery Publishing House,New Delhi II 1-182 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Madhav, GV and Kondalarao, B (2004) Distribution of phytoplankton in the coastal waters of east coast of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 33(3) 262-268 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/1678/1/IJMS%2033%283%29%20262-268.pdf
  • Dodge, JD (1985) Atlas of dinoflagellates Farrand Press, London 1-119 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
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  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Chandrasekaran, VS (2000) Relationship between plankton and finfish and shellfish juveniles in Pichavaram mangrove waterways, south east coast of India Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu 22 (1 & 2) 199-207 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Steidinger, KA and Tangen, K (1997) Dinoflagellates Identifying marine phytoplankton Academic Press, San Diego, USA 387-584 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Plankton*Net Data Provider at the Alfred Wegener Insitute for Polar and Marine Research Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10013/de.awi.planktonnet
  • Rath, J and Adhikary, SP (2006) Seasonal variation of phytoplankton in Chilika Lake, east coast of India Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu, India 28(1) 43-48 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Galeria de imagenes Available at - www.seriestemporales-ieo.net/en/galeria/
  • Devassy, VP; and Goes, JI (1988) Phytoplankton Community Structure and Succession in a Tropical Estuarine Complex (Central West Coast of India) Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Academic Press 27(6) 671-685 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7714(88)90074-1
  • Gopinathan, CP (1972) Seasonal abundance of phytoplankton in the Cochin backwaters Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India,Cochin 14(2) 568-577 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1566/
  • Harnstrom, k; Karunasagar, I and Godhe, A (2009) Phytoplankton species assemblages and their relationship to hydrographic factors-a study at the old port in Mangalore, coastal Arabian sea Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 38(2) 224-234 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/4673
  • Kannan, L and Vasantha, K (1992) Microphytoplankton of the Pitchavaram mangals, southeast coast of India: species composition and population density Hydrobiologia Springer 247 77-86 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00008206
  • Sanilkumar, M G; Dr.Joseph, K J; Dr. Saramma, A V (2009) Planktonic Microalgae Microalgae in the Southwest Coast of India 34-114 Available at - http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/purl/1922
  • Madhu, NV; Jyothibabu, R; Balachandran, KK; Honey, UK; Martin , GD; Vijay , JG; Shiyas, CA; Gupta , GVM and Achuthankutty, CT (2007) Monsoonal impact on planktonic standing stock and abundance in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters - India) Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Elsevier 73 54-64 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/611/1/Estuar_Coast_Shelf_Sci_73_54.pdf
  • Perumal, NV; Rajkumar, M; Perumal, P and Rajasekar, KT (2009) Seasonal variations of plankton diversity in the Kaduviyar estuary, Nagapattinam, southeast coast of India Journal of Environmental Biology Academy of Environmental Biology 30(6) 1035-1046 Available at - www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/200911_nov09/paper_19.pdf
  • Subrahmanyan, R and Sarma, AHV (1960) Studies on the phytoplankton of the west coast of India Part III. Seasonal variation of the phytoplankters and environmental factors Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of fisheries for the Indian council of Agricultural research, Cochin, India 7 (2) 307-336 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1899/1/Article_04.pdf
  • Alkawri, AAS and Ramaiah, N (2011) Distribution of diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and dinoflagellates of Dinophysis spp along coast off Goa Journal of Environmental Biology Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow 32 (1) 65-70 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/3783/1/J_Environ_Biol_32_65.pdf
  • Anantharaman, P; Thirumaran, G; Arumugam, R; Kannan, RR; Hemalatha, A; Kannathasan, A; Sampathkumar, P and Balasubramanian, T (2010) Monitoring of Noctiluca bloom in Mandapam and Keelakarai coastal waters, southeast coast of India Recent Research in Science and Technology 2(10) 51-58 Available at - http://recent-science.com/article/viewFile/4386/2174
  • Rajkumar, M; Perumal, P; Prabu, VA; Perumal, NV and Rajasekar, KT (2009) Phytoplankton diversity in Pichavaram mangrove waters from south-east coast of India Journal of Environmental Biology Triveni Enterprises 30(4) 489-498 Available at - http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/200907_jul09/paper_04.pdf
  • Manikannan, R; Asokan, S and Ali, AHMS (2011) Studies on species composition of plankton in the great Vedaranyam swamp of the Point Calimere wildlife sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI 3(4) 283-289 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms3(4)11/4.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-03-01

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