Halodule uninervis   (Forsskal) Ascherson,  1882 (Seagrass)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Equisetopsida

Image copyrights: McKenzie et al

Plants dioecious. Rhizomes creeping, branched, flexible, fibrous, often monoliferous, white to pale brown; roots 1-6 at each node, unbranched, slender, white to pale yellow; internodes upto 4.2 cm long. Shoots upto 30 cm long, erect, branched or unbranched, bearing 2-4 leaves at each branch. Stems upto 19 cm long; internodes upto 2.4 cm long. Scales linear-oblong, subtruncate at base, acute to obtuse or rarely oblique at apex, hyaline, convolute, entire along margins, with many vertical tannin dashes; leaf sheaths linear, transparent, entire and folded along margins, with numerous reddish-brown streaks, persisting longer than leaf blades; lamina linear, narrowed at base, entire along margins.
Male flowers 2, subequal, dorsally connate at the tip of stalks; stalks upto 2 cm long, terete, slender, white; anthers oblongoid, with many reddish-brown tannin dashes, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers sessile, enclosed in leaf sheaths; ovaries ovoid; styles slender, terete, smooth, terminal; fruits subglobose to ovoid, usually in pairs, with persistent subterminal or lateral styles; testa hard, stony, smooth with ornamentations. Flowering and fruiting is from June to July.

Two distinct forms of Halodule uninervis have been observed. The broad-leaved form is seen in pure marine environment and totally absent in backwaters, estuaries, etc. the other, narrow-leaved form, is found both in marine and backwater regions. The rhizomes are often infected with the fungus, Plasmodiophora diplantherae, and as a result, the internodes become constricted, swollen and appear like beads in a string.

Synonym (s)
Zostera uninervis Forsskal, 1775
(Homotypic synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Kadal Karumbu (Tamil)
• Kadal Korai (Tamil)
• Kadal Paasi (Tamil)
• Korai (Tamil)
• Korai Paasi (Tamil)
• Nedung Korai (Tamil)
• Neettu Korai (Tamil)
• Ghaddu Naasu (Telugu)
• Ghar Naasu (Telugu)
• Thungha (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal


• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti (Lat: 10.57) (Long: 72.62) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti (Lat: 10.83) (Long: 72.2) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.12) (Long: 73.3) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manoli Island (Lat: 9.2) (Long: 79.11) INDIA (Record: 09/2006)
• Tamil Nadu, Sembaiyaru Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 02/10/1916)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA (Record: 04/05/1972)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchchendur INDIA (Record: 16/07/1987) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchchendur, Punnakayal INDIA (Record: 17/07/1987) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchchendur, Manappadu INDIA (Record: 19/07/1987) (Depth: ±4 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Thanjavur, Adhirampattinam INDIA (Record: 15/09/1987) (Depth: ±4 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Thanjavur, Mallipattinam INDIA (Record: 16/09/1987) (Depth: ±5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Manora INDIA (Record: 17/09/1987) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Mimisal INDIA (Record: 22/09/1987) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Pudukottai, Jagathapattinum INDIA (Record: 22/09/1987) (Depth: ±4 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA (Record: 24/09/1987) (Depth: ±4 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA (Record: 25/09/1987) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram, Sangumal INDIA (Record: 24/04/1988) (Depth: ±3 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island INDIA (Record: 1992) (Depth: ±4 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Chinnaganjam INDIA (Record: 25/06/1988) (Depth: ±2 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Salt Pettah INDIA (Record: 27/06/1988) (Depth: ±1 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Nellore, Venkateshpuram INDIA (Record: 01/07/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Ramayeepatnam INDIA (Record: 02/07/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Karedu INDIA (Record: 03/07/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Andhra Pradesh, Nellore, Krishnapatnam INDIA (Record: 08/07/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Gujarat INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Gunnamola INDIA (Record: 28/06/1988) (Depth: ±1.5 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Thirumullaivasal, Uppanar Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Muthukuda, Chittaru Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Sundariapandiapatnam, Pambaru Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Thirthandathanam, Idaiyanaru Estuary INDIA (Record: 1988-1989)
• Tamil Nadu, Thonithurai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manoli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Hare Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Car Nicobar Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Katchall INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nancowry INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA (Record: 01/1987-09/1988)

Literature Source(s)
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  • Hulings, NC (1979) The ecology, biometry and biomass of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea along the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba Botanica Marina 22 425-430 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG (1987) Distribution of algae, seagrasses and coral communities from Lakshadweep islands, eastern Arabian Sea Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi in association with The Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 16(4) 256-260 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Khoja, TM (1987) New records of marine algae for the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin. New York 30 167-176
  • Saad, MAH (1984) Proceedings of the Symposium on Coral Reef environment of the Red Sea King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia 1-681 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Jagtap, TG and Untawale, AG (1984) Chemical Composition of Marine Macrophytes and their sorrounding water and sediments, from Minicoy, Lakshaweep Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 13 123-125 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Schils, T and Eric, C (2003) Spatial variation in subtidal plant communities around the Socotra Archipelago and their biogeographic affinities within the Indian Ocean Marine Ecology Progress Series 251 103-114 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Mathews, G; Diraviyaraj, K and Edward, JKP (2008) Seagrass abundance in Manoli Island of the Gulf of Mannar, southeast of India. Proceedings of the national symposium on marine and coastal ecosystems 27-29, August 2007 Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 30 59-65 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at - http://www.algaebase.org/
  • Ramamurthy, K; Balakrishnan, NP; Ravikumar, K and Ganesan, R (1992) Seagrasses of Coromandel Coast India Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore 80 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG; Komarpant, DS and Rodrigues, R (2003) The seagrasses of India World atlas of seagrasses University of California Press, Berkeley, USA 101-108 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kalimuthu, S; Kaliaperumal, N and Ramalingam, JR (1995) Distribution of algae and seagrasses in the estuaries and backwaters of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 17(1-2) 79-86 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Thangaradjou, T and Kannan, L (2005) Marine sediment texture and distribution of seagrasses in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Seaweed Res Utilis NISCAIR 27(1&2) 145 - 154 Available at - http://www.casmbenvis.nic.in/sdnp/coral%20reef%20pdf/C11.pdf
  • Tanaji,G; Jagtap, Deepali,S; Komarpant, and Rodrigues, RS (2003) Status of a seagrass ecosystem:an ecologically sensitive wetland habitat from India Wetlands 23(1) 161–170 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/awjp1469442q5g75/fulltext.pdf
  • Thangaradjou, T; Nobi, EP; Dilipan, E; Sivakumar, K and Sushila, S (2010) Heavy metal enrichment in seagrasses of Andaman Islands and its implications on the health of the coastal ecosystem Indian Journal of Marine Sciences NISCAIR 39(1) 85-91 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/8550/1/IJMS%2039%281%29%2085-91.pdf
  • Jagtap, T.G. (1992) Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Andaman Sea. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication & Information Resources 21(1) 56-58 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Parthasathy, N; Ravikumar, K; Ganesan, R and Ramamurthy, K (1991) Distribution of seagrasses along the coast of Tamil Nadu, Southern India Aquatic botany Elsevier 40(1) 145-153 Available at - NIO, Goa.
  • Jagtap, TG (1991) Distribution of seagrasses along the Indian coast Aquatic Botany Elsevier B.V. 40(1) 379-386 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-09-29

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