Halimeda opuntia   (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux,  1812 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Bryopsidophyceae

Image copyrights: Teresa Zubi

Size: 3 to 8 mm high,4 to 10 mm wide,and 0.5 to 7 mm thick.

Color: Green to cream.

Branching generally in more than one plane. Branches composed of moderately calcified flat segments with a distinct central rib, generally reniform to flabellate with the upper margin entire, sinuate to deeply lobed. It branches sparsely, dichotomously and trichotomously. The segments are smaller and highly variable. Some are cylindrical, some cuneate and some renifom. Some are ribbed. The margin of the segment is entire or predominantly trilobed. Some of the segments are oriented slightly in different directions so that they look distorted.

Cortex consisting of 5 layers of utricles formed by repeated dichotomies from the medullary filaments; outermost utricles adhere slightly after decalcification, hexagonal in surface view, 23 by 40 to 50 m in transverse section; secondary utricles about 17 m wide. Central medullary filaments extend along the segments, terete and trichotomously branched, with evident constrictions at a short distance above the point of branching. The vertical medullary filaments are mostly trichotomously branched. Lateral cortical filaments arise from the medullary filaments. In the cortical filaments there are 3 to 4 layers of utricles. The secondary utricle is elongated and bears 3 to 6 peripheral utricles at its tip which are rounded in surface view. After decalcification, the peripheral utricles remain separated. At the nodal region the medullary filaments fuse in pairs to a longer distance, thereby showing an extended fusion.

Synonym (s)
Flabellaria multicaulis Lamarck, 1813
Halimeda multicaulis (Lamarck) Lamouroux, 1816
Halimeda triloba Decaisne, 1842
Halimeda opuntia f. triloba (Decaisne) J. Agardh, 1887
Corallina opuntia Linnaeus, 1758
Fucus prolifer M.Blanco, 1837

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
(Source of growth regulators such as auxin,gibberellin,cytokinin; has antibacterial and antifungal properties.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated


• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA (Record: 1903)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 92.75) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 11.12) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8) (Long: 93.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Off Tuticorin INDIA (Record: 12/1958-05/1959) (Depth: 12-17 mts)
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 10.5) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti (Lat: 10.83) (Long: 72.2) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram (Lat: 10.93) (Long: 72.28) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti (Lat: 10.57) (Long: 72.62) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island, Galaxea Reef INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Andrott Island INDIA (Record: 01/1987-03/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Car Nicobar Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Jassund, E (1977) Marine algae in Tanzania VIII Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 20 509-520 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG (1987) Distribution of algae, seagrasses and coral communities from Lakshadweep islands, eastern Arabian Sea Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi in association with The Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi 16(4) 256-260 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Untawale, AG and Jagtap, TG (1989) Observations on marine macrophytes of the Republic of Seychelles Botanica Marina Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 32 115-119 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Drew, EA (1995) Diversity of the green algal genus Halimeda in the Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean Aquatic Botany Elsevier 52 143-150
  • Saad, MAH (1984) Proceedings of the Symposium on Coral Reef environment of the Red Sea King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia 1-681 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Bolton, JJ; Oyieke, HA and Gwada, P (2007) The seaweeds of Kenya: Checklist, history of seaweed study, coastal environment, and analysis of seaweed diversity and biogeography South African Journal of Botany 73 76-88 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Eric, C; Frederik, L;, Heroen, V; de Olivier, C; Tom, S; de Thomas, V and Marie, D (2004) The marine green and brown algae of Rodrigues (Mauritius, Indian Ocean) Journal of Natural History 38 2959-3020
  • Phang, SM (2006) Seaweed resources in Malaysia: Current status and future prospects 9(2) 185-202 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Mohan, JM (1978) Ecological studies on the fauna associated with economic seaweeds of south India-1. species composition, feeding habits and interrelationships Seaweed Research and Utilization Seaweed Research and Utilization Association, Tamil Nadu 3 17 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Starfish Available at - http://www.starfish.ch/
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  • Silva, PC; Basson, PW and Moe, RL (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean University of California Press 79 1259 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Krishnamurthy, V (2006) Key to the taxonomic identification of green and brown marine algae of India Recent advances on applied aspects of Indian marine algae with reference to global scenario. Seaweed taxonomic identification, aquaculture, resource, environment, fouling and disease Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 1 1-146 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sundararajan, M; Selvaraju, C and Krishnamurthy, V (1996) On some species of Halimeda Lamour from Indian waters Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 18(1-2) 21-33 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Krishnamurthy, V and Jayagopal, K (1995) Calcareous algae of the Galaxea Reef, Krusadi Island, Tamil Nadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 17(1-2) 117-121 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Varma, RP (1960) Flora of the pearl beds off Tuticorin Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 2 (2) 221-225 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1405/1/Prasanna_221-225.pdf
  • Sundararajan, M; Rajendran, M; Kaliaperumal, N and Kalimuthu, S (1999) Studies on species of Halimeda from Lakshadweep Seaweed Research and Utilisation CMFRI 21 (1-2) 161-169 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/7072/1/Pages_from_Seaweed_Research_And_Utilisation_Vol_21_161-169.pdf
  • James, PSBR (1987) Distribution of the important Indian marine algae Seaweed research and utilization in India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 41 100-111 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8209/1/Bulletin_No_41.pdf
  • Rao, GC (1991) Distribution of plants and animals on the rocky sea shores of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 7(2) 30-42 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, T.G. (1992) Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Andaman Sea. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication & Information Resources 21(1) 56-58 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-09-26

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