Gracilaria dura   (C. Agardh) J. Agardh,  1842 (Algae)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Florideophyceae

Thallus form and type: Bushy and succulent

Substratum: Intertidal rocks

Occurrence: Tide pools, intertidal streams

Season: November-May

Abundance: Moderate at Viraval and scantily available in other coasts

Plants dark green to yellowish green in color, 10-18 cm tall, bushy, cylindrical, irregularly branched, attached to rocks by discoid holdfast; branches are often covered with short branchlets, which are constricted at the base, pointed or forked at the apices; thallus composed of single layer of cortical cells and central medulla of large ovoid cells. Efforts are under way to cultivate this alga in field using raft method.

Synonym (s)
Sphaerococcus durus C. Agardh, 1822
(Homotypic synonym)
Sphaerococcus sonderii Kutzing, 1849
(Heterotypic synonym)
Gracilaria dura (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, 1842
Gigartina dura (C. Agardh) Desmazieres, 1830
(Homotypic synonym)
Gracilaria dura var. lyra J. Agardh, 1842
(Heterotypic synonym)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Source of high gel strength agar and agarose)

Habitat:  Rocky


• Gujarat, Jalleshwar shore (Lat: 20.9) (Long: 70.37) INDIA
• Gujarat, Jalleshwar INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA (Record: 05/1991, 02/1992)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Alantalai-Manapad INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Vembar-Nallatanni Tivu INDIA (Record: 03/1988)
• Gujarat, Adri INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Subbaramaiah, K (1971) Distribution of marine organisms on the Jalleshwar shore, Veraval Seaweed Research and Utilization 1 19-29 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sahoo, D; Nivedita and Debasish (2001) Seaweeds of Indian coast S. B. Nangia, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi 283 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Bolton, JJ; Oyieke, HA and Gwada, P (2007) The seaweeds of Kenya: Checklist, history of seaweed study, coastal environment, and analysis of seaweed diversity and biogeography South African Journal of Botany 73 76-88 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Phang, SM (2006) Seaweed resources in Malaysia: Current status and future prospects 9(2) 185-202 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Silva, PC; Basson, PW and Moe, RL (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean University of California Press 79 1259 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Siddhanta, AK; Shanmugam, M; Ramavat, BK and Mody, KH (1997) Agar from Gracilaria dura of the west coast of India Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association 19(1-2) 95-99 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at -
  • Department of oceanography and fisheries, University of the Azores Available at -
  • Kaliaperumal, N; Chennubhotla, VSK; Kalimuthu, S; Ramalingam, JR; Pillai, SK; Muniyandi, K; Rao, KR; Rao, PVS; Thomas, PC; Zaidi, SH and Subbaramaiah, K (1998) Seaweed resources and distribution in deep waters from Dhanushkodi to Kanyakumari, Tamilnadu Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu, India 20(1&2) 141-151 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jha B, Reddy C.R.K, Thakur M C and Rao M (2009) Seaweeds of India The Diversity and Distribution of seaweeds of Gujarat Coast Springer 211pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2012-12-10

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