Sonneratia apetala   Buch.-Ham.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Tracheophyta
Class:
Order:Myrtales
Family:Lythraceae

Description
Trees up to 10-40 m tall, 50-200 cm in diameter, crown large, branches many, drooping, bark thin, light-brown, irregularly fissured; buttresses not prominent; pneumatophores 60-150 cm long, arising from horizontal roots, corky, forked twice or thrice, associated with anchor roots and nutrition roots. Leaves 4-10 x 2-3 cm, thick, narrowly elliptic-oblong, tapering towards apex, attenuated at base. Flowers 1.5-2 cm across, apetalous, cream colored, arranged in axillary, 3 flowered dichasial or 7 flowered cymes from the branch axils; calyx 4-merous, reflexed; petals absent; stamens many; stigma large, umbrella shaped. Fruit 2-2.5 cm across, a globose berry seated on the flattened calyx-tube, many seeded and shortly pointed at apex. Flowers in solitary or dichasia cymes.

Flowering and fruiting form March-July, June-October (West Bengal), April-July (Orissa), March-July (Andhra Pradesh), August-December (Tamil Nadu).

Gregarious, often as a pioneer species on newly formed mudflats. The species is easily identified from the other two species of the genus by its narrowly elliptic leaves, apetalous flowers, 4-merous calyx and large umbrella-shaped stigma.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Keora (Bengali)
• Keora (Oriya)
• Marama (Tamil)
• Kalingi (Telugu)
• Fire Fly Mangrove (English)
• Keruan
• Kalinga
• Maramamaram
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Its stem is used for paper pulp, matches, and as poles; leaves as fodder; its fruits are used as vegetable.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Island INDIA
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Mawlamyine MYANMAR
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uthas Creek INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan, Kolamb creek INDIA (Record: 1998-1999)
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Ritchies Archipelago INDIA
• INDIA
• Maharashtra, Vikroli INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Mangrove INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 82.18) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.76) (Long: 82.31) INDIA
• Gujarat, Purna Estuary (Lat: 20.88) (Long: 72.73) INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Gujarat, Purna Estuary (Lat: 21.01) (Long: 72.91) INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Gujarat INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Andhra Pradesh, Bhavanapadu Mangrove INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Jambu INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
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  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
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  • Dorothy, KP; Satyanarayan, B; Kalavathi, C; and Raman, AV (2003) Protozoa associated with leaf litter degradation in coringa mangrove forest, Kakinada Bay, East coast of India Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 32(1) 45-51 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/4233
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, N; Kichenamourthy, S; Muthukumaran, J; Jayakanthan, M; Chandrasekar, M; Punetha, A and Sundar, D (2009) Diversity of true mangroves and their associates in the Pondicherry region of south India and development of a mangrove knowledgebase Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment Academic Journals 1 99-105 Available at - www.academicjournals.org/jene/.../Balachandran%20et%20al.htm
  • Bhatt, S; Shah, DG and Desai, N (2009) The mangrove diversity of Purna estuary, south Gujarat, India Tropical Ecology International Association for Ecology, Cambridge University Press. 50(2) 287-293 Available at - www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_50_2/J-09.pdf
  • Swain, PK; Rao, NR and Mohan, S (2008) New mangrove habitats and additions to the flora of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India Indian Journal of Forestry Commonwealth Forestry Association 31 431-434 Available at - http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/Indian%20Journal%20of%20Forestry%201.pdf
  • Kathiresan, K and Rajendran, N (2005) Grow mangroves for protecting coral reefs! Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 41-48 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kulkarni, VA; Jagtap, TG; Mhalsekar, NM and Naik, AN (2010) Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India Environ Monit Assess Springer 168 587–596 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1136-x
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
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  • (2001) Critical habitat information system of Malvan (Maharashtra-India) Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate, Department of Ocean Development, Government of India 29 pp Available at - http://www.icmam.gov.in/pub.htm

Page last updated on:2013-03-21

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