Rhizophora stylosa   Griff.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Equisetopsida

Image copyrights: Teresa Zubi

Trees up to 12 m tall with many sympodial branches; stem-base supported by many branching stilt roots. Leaves 6-15 x 5-7 cm, broadly elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, obtuse at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers in dichotomously branching axillary cymes, 8-16 in number, pedicellate; peduncles 3-5 cm, 4-6 times forked; calyx lobes 7-9 mm; petals yellowish, purple tinged at apices, fleshy, 6-7 mm long, densely hairy along the margins; stamens 8, 4 episepalous, 4 epipetalous; styles 3-5 mm long, slightly forked. Hypocotyle 20-50 cm long, cylindrical, warty.

Flowering and fruiting from August-October.

Rhizophora stylosa is recognised from the other two species of Rhizophora by its longer style and free part of the ovary seated on the disk.

Synonym (s)
Rhizophora mucronata var. stylosa Schimp

Common Name (s)
• Samudra Rai (Oriya)
• Rai
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Ecosystem balance
(Its wood forms a potential source of tannin and finds application in plywood, adhesive, dye bark, cellophane, rayon, ferro-alloys, cellulose acetate industries and as a substitute for petroleum coke for calcium carbide, besides being used as fuel wood and in medicines, its leaves are used as fodder.
The intricate stems with several stilt roots are effective as tide brakers and check land run off and form an ideal niche for several faunal species.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer


• Orissa INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Island INDIA
• Orissa, Gahirmata Estuary INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Car Nicobar Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Katchall INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nancowry INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • Starfish Available at - http://www.starfish.ch/
  • Venkataraman, K and Wafar, M (2005) Coastal and marine biodiversity of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 34(1) 57-75 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kathiresan, K and Rajendran, N (2005) Grow mangroves for protecting coral reefs! Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 41-48 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Jagtap, T.G. (1992) Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Andaman Sea. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication & Information Resources 21(1) 56-58 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-09-27

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