Rhizophora apiculata   Blume  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Rhizophoraceae

Image copyrights: Teresa Zubi

Description
Trees up to 30 m tall with pyramidal crowns and many ascending branches; stem base supported by numerous branches stilt-roots. Leaves 10-20 x 5-8 cm, elliptic-oblong, coriaceaous, entire, acute or apiculate at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers 10-12 mm across, sessile, white or cream-colored in pairs of upper leaf axils; calyx 4 lobed, concave, accrescent, reflexed in fruit; corolla 4 lobed, lobed fleshy, glabrous, caduceus; stamens 12, 4 episepalous paired, 4 epipetalous. Hypocotyle 30-50 cm long, cylindrical, clavate.

Flowering and fruiting during May-September, March-November (West Bengal), November-April (Orissa), April-August (Andhra Pradesh), May-November (Tamil Nadu), August-October (Kerala, Karnataka), March-July (Goa), October-August (Maharashtra).

Rhizophora apiculata is distinguished from the other two species by its acute leaf tip, 2 flowered inflorescence, glabrous petal lobes and 12 stamens of flowers.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Garjan (Bengali)
• Pikantal (Malayalam)
• Kamodumbi (Marathi)
• Kandal (Tamil)
• Uppu Ponna (Telugu)
• Rai
• Ponna
• Surapinnai
• Pikantal
• Vallikandel
• Kamodumbi
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Ecosystem balance
(Its wood forms a potential source of tannin and finds application in plywood, adhesive, dye bark, cellophane, rayon, ferro-alloys, cellulose acetate industries and as a substitute for petroleum coke for calcium carbide, besides being used as fuel wood and in medicines, its leaves are used as fodder.
The intricate stems with several stilt roots are effective as tide brakers and check land run off and form an ideal niche for several faunal species.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
IUCN Status:  Endangered

Biogeography


• Maharashtra INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.43) (Long: 79.8) INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• BANGLADESH
• MYANMAR
• West Bengal INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.42) (Long: 79.79) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Mangrove INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Delta (Lat: 16.23) (Long: 82.23) INDIA (Record: 08/1993-11/1995)
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Delta (Lat: 16.75) (Long: 82.33) INDIA (Record: 08/1993-11/1995)
• Andhra Pradesh, Krishna Delta (Lat: 15.83) (Long: 80.75) INDIA (Record: 08/1993-11/1995)
• Andhra Pradesh, Krishna Delta (Lat: 15.91) (Long: 80.83) INDIA (Record: 08/1993-11/1995)
• Goa, Chorao Island INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 82.18) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.76) (Long: 82.31) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 76.6) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 79.88) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.81) (Long: 79.71) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 11.01) (Long: 79.86) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangroves (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Beadonabad INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wandoor INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Burma Nallah INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Corbyn's Cove INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Sipighat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Manjeri INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Kadakachang INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wright Myo INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Garacharma INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 11/2008-10/2009)
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Middle Andaman, Bamboo Tikri INDIA (Record: 09/2004-10/2004)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Andaman, Lakshmipur INDIA (Record: 11/2004-12/2004)
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• Kerala, Kollam Coast (Lat: 8.9) (Long: 76.63) INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, False Point INDIA
• Orissa, Jambu INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

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Page last updated on:2011-12-27

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