Lumnitzera racemosa   Willd.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Myrtales
Family:Combretaceae

Image copyrights: Agriculture, fisheries and conservation department

Description
Large shrubs or small trees upto 8 m tall, glabrous ; bark brown­ish, lenticellate, without pneumatophores. Leaves sessile, thick, crowded at branch endings, 4-8 x 1.5-3.5 cm, oblanceolate or obovate, entire, emarginate at apex, tapering at base. Flowers 9-11 mm long, sessile, in short, lax. axillary spikes. 9-11 mm long, white; calyx-lube produced above the ovary; petals 5; stamens 10 or rarely fewer; ovary one celled, inferior. Fruits 8-10 x 4-6 mm, ellipsoid, woody, crowned with persistent calyx­ lobes, one seeded, drupes; seeds elongated, pointed towards apex.

Flowering and fruiting during the period of April-July, May-November (West Bengal), March-July (Orissa, Karnataka), May-July (Andhra Pradesh), August-December (Tamil Nadu), June-September (Kerala), March-August (Maharashtra).

Often found in association with Ceriops tagal or forming pure stands. This species can be recognised in the field by its reddish brown bark of the stem, succulent spatula-like leaves with an apical notch, and vase-shaped fruits.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Kripa (Bengali)
• Tunda (Oriya)
• Tipparathai (Tamil)
• Kandivi (Telugu)
• Thandara (Telugu)
• Churanda
• Kirpa
• Thanduga
• Chipathamaram
• Tipparathai
• Kadakandel
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Wood used for fuel and for extracting tanning. Fruits are used to cure antifertility, asthma, diabetes and snakebite. Leaf extract is used as cure for health problem in infants and Eczema and other skin diseases. Tannin is obtained from stem.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.43) (Long: 79.8) INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan, Kolamb creek INDIA (Record: 1998-1999)
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Mangrove INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 82.18) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.76) (Long: 82.31) INDIA
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, West Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Manauli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, New Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Hukitola INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • (2001) Critical habitat information system of Malvan (Maharashtra-India) Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate, Department of Ocean Development, Government of India 29 pp Available at - http://www.icmam.gov.in/pub.htm
  • Agriculture, fisheries and conservation department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Available at - http://www.afcd.gov.hk/eindex.html
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
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  • Dorothy, KP; Satyanarayan, B; Kalavathi, C; and Raman, AV (2003) Protozoa associated with leaf litter degradation in coringa mangrove forest, Kakinada Bay, East coast of India Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 32(1) 45-51 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/4233
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  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
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Page last updated on:2011-12-27

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