Heritiera littoralis   Dryander.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Equisetopsida

Image copyrights: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research

Large trees up to 25 m tall, trunk 30-80 cm in diameter at base, buttressed, bark thin, grey, longitudinally fissured. Leaves 7-2.5 x 10-20 cm, coriaceous, broadly elliptic or ovate-elliptic, acute or acuminate at apex, obliquely cordate at base, upper surface green, glabrous, lower surface covered with white fimbriate scales. Flowers in axillary panicles, golden-yellow, tinted with red inside, stellate-pubescent, unisexual; male flowers 3-4 mm across, androgynophore white, ringed by the anther lobes; female flowers 4-5 mm across, with sterile anthers at the base of ovary. Fruits (ripe carpels) 8-12 cm across, ellipsoid, smooth, light brown, inner side flat with a prominent midrib bending towards the apex, outer side with a well developed rudder-like crest or wing.

Flowering during November-January and fruiting from February-June.

This species is recognized from Heritiera fomes by its larger leaves with oblique bases, 8-12 cm long smooth ellipsoid fruits with a well developed wing on the outer side and a keel on the inner side.Rather less frequent; on sandy tidal banks in the back mangrove region associated with Hibiscus tiliaceus and Xylocarpus granatum.

Synonym (s)
Heritiera minor Lam.

Common Name (s)
• Sundri (Malayalam)
• Bara Sundari (Oriya)
• The Looking Glass Plant (English)
• Sundari
• Dhala Sundari
• Sundri
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Its wood is dark red, heavy and durable and forms a potential source of timber used for making boats, furniture and in viscose rayon industry. Stem is used to cure diarrhoea.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer


• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• West Coast, Malabar INDIA
• Karnataka, North Kanara INDIA
• Maharashtra, Konkan Coast INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wandoor INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Beadonabad INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Sipighat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Manjeri INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wright Myo INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Garacharma INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Ng, PKL and Sivasothi, N (eds.) (2001) Guide to mangroves of Singapore Available at - http://mangrove.nus.edu.sg/guidebooks/contents.htm
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Veenakumari, K; Mohanraj, P and Bandyopadhyay, AK (1997) Insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the mangals of the Andaman and Nicobar islands Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis Ltd 31 1105-1126 Available at - http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~db=all~content=a770600286~fulltext=713240930?words=insect,herbivores,their,natural,enemies,mangals,andaman,nicobar,islands
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-11-23

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