Heritiera fomes   Buch. Ham.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Malvales
Family:Malvaceae

Description
Trees up to 20 m tall, trunk about 50 cm in diameter at base, prominently buttressed; blaze dark-red; young branches covered with shining golden-brown scales; roots with numerous woody peg-like pneumatophores or blind-root suckers. Leaves 5-12 x 3-6 cm, elliptic, upper surface green, lower surface shining with silvery scales, tapering at both ends. Flowers in axillary panicles, unisexual, densely pubescent, golden-yellow with reddish tingle inside; calyx 5 or rarely 4-6 toothed; petals absent; male flowers: stamen united into a column and anthers lobes forming a ring at the top; female flowers: carpels 5-6, nearly free. Fruit (ripe carpels) 3-4 cm across, subglobose, corrugated, woody, indehiscent, furrowed on the inside and less prominently winged on the outer side.

Flowering and fruiting during May-August.

Heritiera fomes is distinguished from its shining silvery under surface of leaves and subglobose fruits with longitudinal and transverse ridges.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Sundari (Bengali)
• Sundari (Oriya)
• Bada Sundari
• Sundri (Bengali)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(The species is a potential source of timber and is extensively exploited for boat building, plough making and in viscose rayon industry. Its seeds are reported to be medicinal in curing piles.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• East Coast INDIA
• West Bengal, Gangetic Delta INDIA
• INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Irrawaddy Delta MYANMAR
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, False Point INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, A; Mukherjee, S; Sen, N; Dasgupta, M and Naskar, KR (2002) Checklist of mangroves and mangrove associated species in the Indian Sundarbans Seshaiyana Environmental Information System(ENVIS)Centre, C.A.S. in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 10(2) 39877 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
  • Venkataraman, K and Wafar, M (2005) Coastal and marine biodiversity of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 34(1) 57-75 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kathiresan, K and Rajendran, N (2005) Grow mangroves for protecting coral reefs! Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 41-48 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Upadhyay, VP; Mishra, PK and Sahu, JR (2008) Distribution of mangrove species within Bhitarkanika national park in Orissa, India Trees for Life Journal www.TFLJournal.org Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/eprints11/Trees_Life_J_3_5pp.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-26

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