Excoecaria agallocha   Linnaeus  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Euphorbiaceae

Image copyrights: The State of Queensland (Primary Industries and Fisheries within the Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation)

Description
Evergreen trees or large shrubs, often 15 m tall, trunk up to 70 cm in diameter at base, bark greyish, lenticelled, wood soft, light; plant parts with milky sap; root-system without a prominent main root, many laterally spreading. superficial, snake-like roots producing elbo­ shaped pegs from supraterranean bends. Leaves 3-8 x 1.5-3 cm, ovate, ovate-elliptic or ovate-oblong, greenish turning red before shed­ding, acute or obtuse at apex, narrowed at base. Flowers unisexual, fragrant; male flowers 2-3 mm, yellow, in axillary catkin-like spikes; female flowers 2.5-3.5 mm, pedicellate, in axillary few-flower­ed racemes. Capsules 1-1.5 cm across, depressed-globose, 3 lobed, dehiscent; seeds sub-globose or 3 gonus.

Flowering and fruiting from March-July, February-August (West Bengal), June-September (Orissa), March-October (Andhra Pradesh), August-February (Tamil Nadu), April-October (Kerala), March-December (Karnataka), throughout the year except September (Goa), May-October (Maharashtra).

The species is readily known for light green leaves which turn reddish on ageing and cat-tail like male inflorescences and for the poisonous milky juice of the plant which readily exudes on injuring any plant part.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Goan (Bengali)
• Gangwa (Hindi)
• Komatti (Malayalam)
• Gango (Oriya)
• Tilai (Tamil)
• Blinding Tree (English)
• Genwa
• Guan
• Tilla (Telugu)
• Thillai
• Thillaimaram
• Kammetti
• Kannampotti
• Geva (Marathi)
• Gewa (Bengali)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Wood is used in making paper pulp for boards, in soft-wood industry, firewood and also as a float for fishing nets.
Leaf extract and sap of this plant are used for treating epilepsy, leprosy, toothache and as purgative. The extract of stem, leaf and sap is used for treating conjunctivitis, haematuria and leprosy.
The 'milky juice of the plant is highly acrid and produces blisters on skin and causes blindness. Cabel like roots of this plant is used to make bottle corks.
Latex of this plant causes injury to the eye.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Sundarbans (Lat: 21.97) (Long: 88.93) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.43) (Long: 79.8) INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Maharashtra, Uran Creek (Lat: 20.48) (Long: 77.53) INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi and Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vashista estuary INDIA (Record: 02/2009-01/2010)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vainateyam estuary INDIA (Record: 02/2009-01/2010)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, Meghadri Mangroves (Lat: 17.7) (Long: 83.26) INDIA (Record: 04/2006-03/2007)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram (Lat: 11.42) (Long: 79.79) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Mangrove INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi INDIA
• Orissa, Brahmani-Baitarani Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 76.6) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 79.88) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 10.81) (Long: 79.71) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 11.01) (Long: 79.86) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 75.51) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 11.71) (Long: 75.55) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 82.18) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.76) (Long: 82.31) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Wandoor INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chidiya Tapu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Corbyn's Cove INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Manjeri INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Kadakachang INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Garacharma INDIA
• Kerala, Valapattanam Mangrove Forest (Lat: 11.25) (Long: 75.36) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Manauli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Subarnarekha Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA
• Kerala, Poyya (Lat: 10.21) (Long: 76.23) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Thakurdia INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Mandal, AK and Nandi, NC (1989) Fauna of Sundarban mangrove ecosystem, West Bengal, India Fauna of Conservations 3 35431 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG; Untawale, AG and Inamdar, SN (1994) Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi 23(2) 90-93 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, A; Mukherjee, S; Sen, N; Dasgupta, M and Naskar, KR (2002) Checklist of mangroves and mangrove associated species in the Indian Sundarbans Seshaiyana Environmental Information System(ENVIS)Centre, C.A.S. in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 10(2) 39877 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Matilal, S; Mukherjee, BB; Chatterjee, N and Gupta, MD (1986) Studies on soil and vegetation of Mangrove forests of Sunderbans Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 15 181-184 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Veera, RA and Kathiresan, K (1990) Seasonal variation in gallotannin from mangroves Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 19 224-225 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Debnath, HS (2004) Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Taxonomy and ecology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India 133 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raghavendrudu, G and Kondalarao, B (2008) Density of heterotrophic bacteria in Meghadri mangrove ecosystem, Visakhapatnam, east coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 106-109 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Prasad, MBK and Ramanathan, AL (2009) Organic matter characterization in a tropical estuarine-mangrove ecosystem of India: Preliminary assessment by using stable isotopes and lignin phenols Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Elsevier 1-8 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.07.029
  • Yeragi, SG; Babu, KN and Yeragi, SS (2000) Structure and species distribution of mangrove forest at Uran Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 200-204 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Dorothy, KP; Satyanarayan, B; Kalavathi, C; and Raman, AV (2003) Protozoa associated with leaf litter degradation in coringa mangrove forest, Kakinada Bay, East coast of India Indian journal of marine sciences NISCAIR 32(1) 45-51 Available at - http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/4233
  • Balasubramanian, T and Khan, SA (Eds.) (2002) Mangroves of India State-of-the-art report Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, N; Kichenamourthy, S; Muthukumaran, J; Jayakanthan, M; Chandrasekar, M; Punetha, A and Sundar, D (2009) Diversity of true mangroves and their associates in the Pondicherry region of south India and development of a mangrove knowledgebase Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment Academic Journals 1 99-105 Available at - www.academicjournals.org/jene/.../Balachandran%20et%20al.htm
  • Rao, GMN and Praygamurty, P (2010) Mangroves and associated Flora of Vashista and Vainateyam estuaries, A.P. India Notulae Scientia Biologicae University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine 2(4) 40-43 Available at - http://notulaebiologicae.ro/nsb/article/view/4877/5114
  • Veenakumari, K; Mohanraj, P and Bandyopadhyay, AK (1997) Insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the mangals of the Andaman and Nicobar islands Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis Ltd 31 1105-1126 Available at - http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~db=all~content=a770600286~fulltext=713240930?words=insect,herbivores,their,natural,enemies,mangals,andaman,nicobar,islands
  • Untawale, AG; Dwivedi, SN and Singbal, SYS (1973) Ecology of mangroves in Mandovi & Zuari estuaries & the interconnecting Cumbarjua canal of Goa Indian Journal of Marine Sciences NISCAIR 2 47-53 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Khaleel, KM (2005) Diversity, indigenous traditional knowledge and consequences of destruction of mangroves on the banks of Valapatanam river kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and developmen 89-96 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Stoddart, DR and Fosberg, FR (1972) South Indian sand cays Atoll Research Bulletin 161 1-25 Available at - http://si-pddr.si.edu/jspui/bitstream/10088/5054/1/00161.pdf
  • Kulkarni, VA; Jagtap, TG; Mhalsekar, NM and Naik, AN (2010) Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India Environ Monit Assess Springer 168 587–596 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1136-x
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Jagtap, T.G. (1992) Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Andaman Sea. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication & Information Resources 21(1) 56-58 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Saritha, MK; Tessy, PP (2011) Mangroves of Poyya backwaters of Thrissur district, Kerala, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India 53(1) 8-13 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Upadhyay, VP; Mishra, PK and Sahu, JR (2008) Distribution of mangrove species within Bhitarkanika national park in Orissa, India Trees for Life Journal www.TFLJournal.org Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/eprints11/Trees_Life_J_3_5pp.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-26

Back to Search