Bruguiera gymnorrhiza   (L.) Lamk.  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Equisetopsida

Image copyrights: Teresa Zubi

Large trees up to 30 m tall, stem-base with many knee-like bent roots. Leaves 7.5-15 x 4-6 cm, elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, acute at apex, obtuse at base; stipules and petioles reddish. Flowers 3-5 cm long, scarlet, axillary, solitary; calyx 10-16 lobed, lobes usually 1/5th of the length of the calyx-tube; petals 10-15 mm long, stiff, bilobed with a bristles in sinus, bristle shorter than the lobes, each petal-lobe with 3-4 apical 1.5-4 mm long cilia, outer margins of petals fringed with white silky hairs. Hypocotyle 10-15 cm long, cigar-shaped, obscurely ribbed.

Fruiting and flowering: March - October (West Bengal), throughtout the year (Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala), May – June (Karnataka), April - August (Maharashtra).

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza is distinguished from the other species of the genus by its red colored petioles, midrib of leaves and flowers. Often found in association with species of Rhizophora and Ceriops in intertidal regions.

Synonym (s)
Bruguiera conjugata Merr.
Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lamk
Bruguiera rheedii Blume

Common Name (s)
• Kankra (Bengali)
• Natinga (Bengali)
• Kakra (Hindi)
• Banduri (Oriya)
• Thudduponna (Telugu)
• Kankra
• Bandari
• Kandriga
• Kandel
• Chitleri
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(This species is exploited for its hard-wood stems used in building fishing boats and houses, electric poles and for charcoal making and yields tannin. Its leaves are used as fodder. Fruit extract is used as cure for eye diseases. Hypocotyl eaten as vegetable and wood is used as firewood.)

Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer


• Karnataka INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Karnataka Coast INDIA
• Karnataka, Udyavara Mangrove INDIA (Record: 10/1999, 03/2000)
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Kerala, Ashtamudi INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Subarnarekha Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika National Park INDIA
• Orissa, Dangmal INDIA
• Orissa, Kakranasi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • (2006) Algaebase Available at -
  • Ibamba, SK (1972) Mineral element content of some benthic marine algae of the Kenya coast Botanica Marina Walter de Gryuter, Berlin 15 113-115 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, A; Mukherjee, S; Sen, N; Dasgupta, M and Naskar, KR (2002) Checklist of mangroves and mangrove associated species in the Indian Sundarbans Seshaiyana Environmental Information System(ENVIS)Centre, C.A.S. in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamilnadu, India 10(2) 39877 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Matilal, S; Mukherjee, BB; Chatterjee, N and Gupta, MD (1986) Studies on soil and vegetation of Mangrove forests of Sunderbans Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 15 181-184 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at -
  • Starfish Available at -
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at -
  • Balasubramanian, T and Khan, SA (Eds.) (2002) Mangroves of India State-of-the-art report Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Maria, GL; and Sridhar, KR (2003) Diversity of filamentous fungi on woody litter of five mangrove plant species from the southwest coast of India Fungal Diversity Fungal Diversity Press 14 109-126 Available at -
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Saravanan, KR; Ilangovan, K and Khan, AB (2008) Floristic and macro faunal diversity of Pondicherry mangroves, South India Tropical Ecology International Association for Ecology, Cambridge University Press 49(1) 91-94 Available at -
  • James, EJ (2005) Management of river basins in relation to coastal wetlands: case studies from Indian subcontinent kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 21-47 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at -
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at -
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Upadhyay, VP; Mishra, PK and Sahu, JR (2008) Distribution of mangrove species within Bhitarkanika national park in Orissa, India Trees for Life Journal Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-27

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