Acanthus ilicifolius   Linnaeus  (Mangrove Plant)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class: Equisetopsida
Order:Lamiales
Family:Acanthaceae

Description
Erect or rarely scandent perennial shrubs up to 2 m tall; stems several, stout, glabrous, base with stilt roots. Leaves glabrous, shining, 5-11 x 3-8 cm, various, usually ovate-oblong, elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, pinnatifid or toothed, rigid, narrowed at base, obtusely spinous at apex, marginal teeth spinous, nerves strong. Flowers in terminal spikes. Flowers sessile, 3.5-4cm long, in terminal or pseudo-axillary densely strobilate spike; bracts 1-2 cm long, acute, ovate, glabrous; calyx 4 segmented, lobes glabrous, shortly connate in two opposite pairs; corolla 5 segmented,3-4 cm long, blue or bluish violet, segments connate, 2 lipped, hairy outside; stamens with thick filaments, anthers densely bearded. Capsule ovoid-oblong, up to 3 cm long, compressed, apiculate, brown, shining. Seeds 4.

The species is easily recognisable in the field from its holy-like leaves and attractive bluish flowers. Gregarious along the tidal swamps in the sheltered mangrove areas, mostly as a secondary formation. Rarely seen in freshwater indicating its ecological amplitude and tolerance. Flowering and fruiting from April-August.

They are considered as mangrove associates as they lack typical adaptations such as pneumatophores and vivipary.


Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Hargoza (Hindi)
• Marandi (Marathi)
• Alsi (Telugu)
• Akhi (Telugu)
• Sea Holly (English)
• Holly Mangrove (English)
• Haraguja
• Hara Kancha
• Allichi
• Aartrumul
• Chulli
• Marandi
• Kantali
• Uppuchulli (Malayalam)
• Muthalachulli (Malayalam)
• Pannichulli (Malayalam)
• Vayalchulli (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fruit pulp is used as a blood purifier and leaf paste in rheumatism. Fruit used in asthma, as aphrodisiac. Fruit, leaf, root used to cure diabetes, diuretic, dyspepsia, hepatitis and leprosy. Bark, fruit, leaf used to cure neuralgia, paralysis, ringworms, skin disease, stomach pains and snake bites. Local people use this plant to cure mumps. The leaves of this plant are made into paste and are applied to affected areas. Flowers of this plant is are offered by teenage girls to kamadeva during pooram festival to get good spouses.)
Threats:  Natural threats

Ecology
Trophic Level:  Producer
IUCN Status:  Endangered

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Prentice Island (Lat: 22.08) (Long: 89.13) INDIA
• Karnataka INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• INDONESIA
• MYANMAR
• West Bengal INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi and Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vashista estuary INDIA (Record: 02/2009-01/2010)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vainateyam estuary INDIA (Record: 02/2009-01/2010)
• West Bengal, Medinipur (Lat: 21.5) (Long: 87.08) INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2002)
• West Bengal, Medinipur (Lat: 22.03) (Long: 88.08) INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2002)
• Maharashtra, Uran Creek (Lat: 20.48) (Long: 77.53) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA
• Maharashtra, Sindhudurg INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Raigarh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Thane INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Ritchies Archipelago INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Baratang INDIA
• INDIA
• Maharashtra, Achra INDIA
• Karnataka, Udyavara Mangrove INDIA (Record: 10/1999, 03/2000)
• Pondicherry (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 76.6) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.81) (Long: 79.71) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 11.01) (Long: 79.86) INDIA
• Pondicherry (Lat: 12.5) (Long: 79.88) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 11.7) (Long: 75.51) INDIA
• Pondicherry, Mahe (Lat: 11.71) (Long: 75.55) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.7) (Long: 82.18) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Yanam (Lat: 16.76) (Long: 82.31) INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Gujarat, Purna Estuary (Lat: 20.88) (Long: 72.73) INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Gujarat, Purna Estuary (Lat: 21.01) (Long: 72.91) INDIA (Record: 2006-2008)
• Andhra Pradesh, Nuvvalarevu Mangrove INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Bhavanapadu Mangrove INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Manori INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Subarnarekha Mangrove Forest INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarban Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika Mangrove Forest INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Godavari and Krishna Delta INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Estuary INDIA
• Karnataka, Kundapura INDIA
• Goa, Zuari Estuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bhavnagar Estuary INDIA
• Kerala, Poyya (Lat: 10.21) (Long: 76.23) INDIA
• Kerala, Koshavankunnu INDIA (Record: 4/2008-/2008)
• Kerala, Chenthurutti INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Delta INDIA
• Orissa, Paradeep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Kathiresan, K and N, Rajendran (2005) Mangrove ecosystems of the Indian Ocean region Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Sciences, Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India 34(1) 104-113 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG; Untawale, AG and Inamdar, SN (1994) Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi 23(2) 90-93 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Matilal, S; Mukherjee, BB; Chatterjee, N and Gupta, MD (1986) Studies on soil and vegetation of Mangrove forests of Sunderbans Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 15 181-184 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Kumudranjan, N; Rathindranath, M (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves Daya publishing house 1 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Banerjee, LK; Sastry, RK and Nayar MP (1989) Mangroves in India: Identification manual Botanical survey of India, Calcutta, India Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Rajendra N and Sanjeevi SB (2004) Flowering plants and fern in mangrove ecosystems of India: An identification manual ENVIS centre, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. 110 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Chandra, A and Chakraborty, SK (2008) Distribution, density and community ecology of macrobenthic intertidal polychaetes in the coastal tract of Midnapore, West Bengal, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 7-16 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Yeragi, SG; Babu, KN and Yeragi, SS (2000) Structure and species distribution of mangrove forest at Uran Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 200-204 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Lissy, KP and Simon, TK (2001) Ecological and ethnobotanical studies in Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 43(1&2) 222-227 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Available at - http://forest.and.nic.in/frst-mangroves1.htm
  • Untawale, AG; Dhargalkar, VK and Deshmukhe, GV (2000) Prioritization of potential sites for marine biodiversity conservation in India Setting biodiversity conservation priorities for India: Summary of the findings and conclusions of the biodiversity conservation prioritization project World Wide Fund for Nature - India, New Delhi (India) Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/bitstream/2264/1614/2/Setting_Biodiversity_Conserv_Priorities_India_2000_1_104.pdf
  • (2002) MangroveIndia Available at - http://www.mangroveindia.org
  • Maria, GL; and Sridhar, KR (2003) Diversity of filamentous fungi on woody litter of five mangrove plant species from the southwest coast of India Fungal Diversity Fungal Diversity Press 14 109-126 Available at - www.fungaldiversity.org/fdp/sfdp/14-9.pdf
  • Balachandran, N; Kichenamourthy, S; Muthukumaran, J; Jayakanthan, M; Chandrasekar, M; Punetha, A and Sundar, D (2009) Diversity of true mangroves and their associates in the Pondicherry region of south India and development of a mangrove knowledgebase Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment Academic Journals 1 99-105 Available at - www.academicjournals.org/jene/.../Balachandran%20et%20al.htm
  • Bhatt, S; Shah, DG and Desai, N (2009) The mangrove diversity of Purna estuary, south Gujarat, India Tropical Ecology International Association for Ecology, Cambridge University Press. 50(2) 287-293 Available at - www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_50_2/J-09.pdf
  • Swain, PK; Rao, NR and Mohan, S (2008) New mangrove habitats and additions to the flora of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India Indian Journal of Forestry Commonwealth Forestry Association 31 431-434 Available at - http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/Indian%20Journal%20of%20Forestry%201.pdf
  • Veenakumari, K and Prashanth, M (2009) A note on the entomofauna of mangrove associates in the Andaman Islands (Indian Ocean: India) Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis Ltd 43 807-823 Available at - http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~content=a909513066~fulltext=713240930~frm=content
  • Rao, GMN and Praygamurty, P (2010) Mangroves and associated Flora of Vashista and Vainateyam estuaries, A.P. India Notulae Scientia Biologicae University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine 2(4) 40-43 Available at - http://notulaebiologicae.ro/nsb/article/view/4877/5114
  • Untawale, AG; Dwivedi, SN and Singbal, SYS (1973) Ecology of mangroves in Mandovi & Zuari estuaries & the interconnecting Cumbarjua canal of Goa Indian Journal of Marine Sciences NISCAIR 2 47-53 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jagtap, TG; Desai, K and Rodrigues, R (2003) Coastal vegetation: patterns in a tourist region Coastal tourism, environment, and sustainable local development TERI 131-150 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Khaleel, KM (2005) Diversity, indigenous traditional knowledge and consequences of destruction of mangroves on the banks of Valapatanam river kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and developmen 89-96 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at - http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/wlc12/A%20-%20Ecology%20&%20Biodiversity/A-21.pdf
  • Kumar, VS (2005) An overview of mangroves in Andamans and its significance in maintenance of natural ecosystem Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 200-212 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Kulkarni, VA; Jagtap, TG; Mhalsekar, NM and Naik, AN (2010) Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India Environ Monit Assess Springer 168 587–596 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1136-x
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Mandal, RN and Naskar, KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangroves: a review Tropical Ecology International Society for Tropical Ecology 49(2) 131-146 Available at - http://www.tropecol.com/pdf/open/PDF_49_2/05%20Mandal.pdf
  • Saritha, MK; Tessy, PP (2011) Mangroves of Poyya backwaters of Thrissur district, Kerala, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India 53(1) 8-13 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Banerjee, LK and Roa, TA (2001) Flora of the Mahanadi Delta, Orissa Botanical Survey of India 1-307 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-11-23

Back to Search